• 1
    Honigman R, Castle DJ. Aging and cosmetic enhancement. Clin Interv Aging 2006; 1: 115119.
  • 2
    Rzany B, Carruthers A, Carruthers J et al. Validated composite assessment scales for the global face. Dermatol Surg 2012; 38: 294308.
  • 3
    Ascher B. Developments in management of facial and body lipoatrophy with exogenous volumetric injectables. In: Landau M, Rossi B, eds. Injection Treatments in Cosmetic Surgery (Ascher B). Informa Healthcare, London, UK, 2008: 329338.
  • 4
    Burgess CM. Principles of soft tissue augmentation for the aging face. Clin Interv Aging 2006; 1: 349355.
  • 5
    Greco TM, Antunes MB, Yellin SA. Injectable fillers for volume replacement in the aging face. Facial Plast Surg 2012; 28: 820.
  • 6
    Mashkevich G, Wang J, Rawnsley J, Keller GS. The utility of ultrasound in the evaluation of submental fullness in aging necks. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2009; 11: 240245.
  • 7
    Thomas MK, D'Silva JA, Borole AJ. Facial sculpting: comprehensive approach for aesthetic correction of round face. Indian J Plast Surg 2012; 45: 122127.
  • 8
    Patel BCK. Aesthetic surgery of the aging neck: options and techniques. Orbit 2006; 25: 327356.
  • 9
    Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepúlveda D, Pierson RN, Harris T, Heymsfield SB. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 228239.
  • 10
    Co AC, Abad-Casintahan MF, Espinoza-Thaebtharm A. Submental fat reduction by mesotherapy using phosphatidylcholine alone vs. phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium: a pilot study. J Cosmet Dermatol 2007; 6: 250257.
  • 11
    Koehler J. Complications of neck liposuction and submentoplasty. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2009;21:4352, vi.
  • 12
    Kamer FM, Minoli JJ. Postoperative platysmal band deformity. A pitfall of submental liposuction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993; 119: 193196.
  • 13
    Abraham MT, Romo T, III. Liposuction of the face and neck: treatment and management. 2012. URL (last accessed: 8 November 2013).
  • 14
    Araco A, Gravante G, Gentile P, Cervelli V. Surgical site infections after post-bariatric abdominoplasty and flank liposuction: a case-control study focusing on the quantity of tissue removed. Surg Today 2012; 42: 9799.
  • 15
    Barillo DJ, Cancio LC, Kim SH, Shirani KZ, Goodwin CW. Fatal and near-fatal complications of liposuction. South Med J 1998; 91: 487492.
  • 16
    Wong SS, Wong SC, Yuen KY. Infections associated with body modification. J Formos Med Assoc 2012; 111: 667681.
  • 17
    Pelosi MA III, Pelosi MA II. Liposuction. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2010; 37: 507519.
  • 18
    Mejia JD, Nahai FR, Nahai F, Momoh AO. Isolated management of the aging neck. Semin Plast Surg 2009; 23: 264273.
  • 19
    Coleman KM, Coleman WP III, Benchetrit A. Non-invasive, external ultrasonic lipolysis. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2009; 28: 263267.
  • 20
    Ersek RA. Evaluation of new ultrasound technologies should include assessments of peripheral nerve function. Aesthet Surg J 2011; 31: 837.
  • 21
    Rotunda AM. Injectable treatments for adipose tissue: terminology, mechanism, and tissue interaction. Lasers Surg Med 2009; 41: 714720.
  • 22
    Dover J, Schlessinger J, Young L, Havlickova B, Walker P. Results from a phase IIb study evaluating the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for reduction of submental fat using magnetic resonance imaging and investigator and subject assessment. 21st Annual Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Prague, Czech Republic, 27–30 September 2012; Poster P258.
  • 23
    Goodman G, Smith K, Lee D, Havlickova B, Walker P. ATX-101, a pharmacological treatment, for the reduction of submental fat: results of two pooled phase IIa studies. 21st Annual Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Prague, Czech Republic, 27–30 September 2012; Poster P259.
  • 24
    Smith K, Goodman G, Sapra S, Lee D, Walker P. ATX-101 treatment offers long-term durability of submental fat reduction: preliminary follow-up study results of subjects from two phase 2A studies. 70th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology. San Diego, CA, USA, 16–20 March 2012; Abstract 4899.
  • 25
    Walker P, Havlickova B, Lee D. ATX-101 for reduction of submental fat: pharmacokinetic and safety findings from a phase I trial. 8th European Masters in Anti-Aging Medicine. Paris, France, 12–14 October 2012; Poster.
  • 26
    Thuangtong R, Bentow JJ, Knopp K, Mahmood NA, David NE, Kolodney MS. Tissue-selective effects of injected deoxycholate. Dermatol Surg 2010; 36: 899908.
  • 27
    Yagima Odo ME, Cuce LC, Odo LM, Natrielli A. Action of sodium deoxycholate on subcutaneous human tissue: local and systemic effects. Dermatol Surg 2007; 33: 178188.
  • 28
    Price DD, Finniss DG, Benedetti F. A comprehensive review of the placebo effect: recent advances and current thought. Annu Rev Psychol 2008; 59: 565590.