Table S1 Multilocus genotypes of Mycocepurus smithii samples, GPS data information for sample locations, primer sequence for locus A6_2.

Table S2 Expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosities of M. smithii ants.

Table S3 Pairwise genetic differentiation (FST values) between eleven populations of Mycocepurus smithii ants and fungus.

Table S4 Statistics for the significance of ant–fungus associations analysed in ParaFit.

Figure S1 Sample-based rarefaction curves (lineage-accumulation curves) of (a) fungus types; (b) ant lineages; and (c) ant/fungus combination of M. smithii collected in the Republic of Panamá in 2010.

Figure S2 Phylogenetic relationships (neighbour-joining tree) of eleven ant lineages of M. smithii in Central Panama.

Figure S3 Maximum-likelihood phylogeny of 131 lower-attine cultivars and 174 free-living lepiotaceous fungi.

Figure S4 Maximum-likelihood phylogeny inferred from ITS rDNA sequence information for (a) Clade 1 and (b) Clade 2 fungi cultivated by lower-attine ants.

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