You have free access to this content

Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 100 Issue 3

May 2012

Volume 100, Issue 3

Pages 577–840

  1. Plant-plant interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Assessing the role of competition and stress: a critique of importance indices and the development of a new approach (pages 577–585)

      Mark Rees, Dylan Z. Childs and Robert P. Freckleton

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01946.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We strongly discourage the use of heuristic indices in ecological research. The majority of the 50 or so indices that have been used in competition studies have been developed with little or no regard to underlying theory or models. However, it is possible to make predictions about how competition varies along gradients from models that translate into both qualitative and quantitative conditions and metrics, and we encourage authors to do this.

  2. Palaeoecology and land-use history

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Upland deforestation triggered an ecosystem state-shift in a kettle peatland (pages 586–596)

      Alex W. Ireland and Robert K. Booth

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01961.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Upland deforestation by European settlers triggered a cascade of ecological changes on a nutrient-poor peatland by enhancing dust deposition and nutrient delivery on the surface. These results demonstrate that indirect, unintended and often overlooked human disturbances can lead to dramatic structural and functional alterations of carbon-rich wetland ecosystems, highlighting the potential vulnerability of these systems in human-dominated landscapes.

  3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Plant diversity improves protection against soil-borne pathogens by fostering antagonistic bacterial communities (pages 597–604)

      Ellen Latz, Nico Eisenhauer, Björn C. Rall, Eric Allan, Christiane Roscher, Stefan Scheu and Alexandre Jousset

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01940.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results suggest that plant diversity contributes to plant community resistance against pathogens by fostering beneficial bacterial communities. This indirect soil feedback mechanismmay contribute to the positive relationship between plant diversity and productivity and could also help the development of more sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural management strategies.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Relationships among soil moisture, aeration and plant communities in natural and harvested coniferous forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada (pages 605–618)

      Toktam Sajedi, Cindy E. Prescott, Brad Seely and Les M. Lavkulich

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01942.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our findings confirmed that these ecosystems bracket a critical biological threshold below which low soil oxygen availability caused by excessive moisture becomes limiting for biological processes. Recognition of this redox threshold and its ecological implications could contribute to improved ability to manage ecosystems which may be near this threshold or become so in a changing climate.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Multiple mechanisms for trait effects on litter decomposition: moving beyond home-field advantage with a new hypothesis (pages 619–630)

      Grégoire T. Freschet, Rien Aerts and Johannes H. C. Cornelissen

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01943.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate here that plant traits, likely via their control on litter and topsoil decomposer community composition, have indirect effects on litter breakdown rates, not only at the interface between ecosystems but also within ecosystems, with likely implications for many other ecosystems world-wide. These results suggest functional variation in decomposer communities between ecosystems with respect to their efficiency to degrade litters with contrasting qualities, such as different lignolytic and detoxification activities but also contrasting efficiencies to degrade non-recalcitrant tissues.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Experimental assessment of nutrient limitation along a 2-million-year dune chronosequence in the south-western Australia biodiversity hotspot (pages 631–642)

      Etienne Laliberté, Benjamin L. Turner, Thomas Costes, Stuart J. Pearse, Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll, Graham Zemunik and Hans Lambers

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01962.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results provide strong support for the long-term ecosystem-development model, particularly with regard to the appearance of P limitation and associated declines in productivity. However, our study also shows that N cannot be assumed to invariably be the most important limiting nutrient in young soils, and it is unlikely to be the only limiting nutrient in calcareous soils. This south-western Australian long-term chronosequence provides an excellent opportunity to explore edaphic controls over plant species diversity.

  4. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Soil resource availability shapes community trait structure in a species-rich dipterocarp forest (pages 643–651)

      Masatoshi Katabuchi, Hiroko Kurokawa, Stuart J. Davies, Sylvester Tan and Tohru Nakashizuka

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01937.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using trait-based approach, we found that the soil resource availability was crucial determinant of habitat filtering processes in a dipterocarp tree community in a 52-ha Malaysian forest dynamics plot. Variation in soil resource availability can shape the distribution of traits through community assembly processes, promoting trait diversification and species coexistence.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Inferring community assembly mechanisms from functional diversity patterns: the importance of multiple assembly processes (pages 652–661)

      Marko J. Spasojevic and Katharine N. Suding

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01945.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Functional diversity patterns suggest that multiple assembly processes (abiotic filtering, above-ground competition and below-ground competition) operate simultaneously to structure plant communities along a stress–resource gradient in alpine tundra. These processes would be obscured by focusing on a single multivariate trait index or on phylogenetic diversity and are only evident by analyzing functional diversity patterns of individual traits.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Which plant traits determine abundance under long-term shifts in soil resource availability and grazing intensity? (pages 662–677)

      Etienne Laliberté, Bill Shipley, David A. Norton and David Scott

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01947.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We measured shifts in plant trait distributions following long-term (27-year) manipulations of soil resource availability and grazing intensity. We used these trait distributions to predict species relative abundances using ‘community assembly through trait selection’ (CATS) models. These models allowed us to quantify the relative importance of different traits in determining abundance across different environmental conditions.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Changes in coexistence mechanisms along a long-term soil chronosequence revealed by functional trait diversity (pages 678–689)

      Norman W. H. Mason, Sarah J. Richardson, Duane A. Peltzer, Francesco de Bello, David A. Wardle and Robert B. Allen

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01965.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results demonstrate that at high fertility locally dominant species differ in resource-use strategy, but as soil fertility declines over the long term, dominant species increasingly converge on a resource-retentive strategy. This suggests that differentiation in resource-use strategy is required for coexistence at high-fertility but not in low-fertility ecosystems.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Using functional traits and phylogenetic trees to examine the assembly of tropical tree communities (pages 690–701)

      Christopher Baraloto, Olivier J. Hardy, C. E. Timothy Paine, Kyle G. Dexter, Corinne Cruaud, Luke T. Dunning, Mailyn-Adriana Gonzalez, Jean-François Molino, Daniel Sabatier, Vincent Savolainen and Jerome Chave

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01966.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We provide the most comprehensive examination to date of the relative importance of environmental filtering and limiting similarity in structuring tropical tree communities. Our results confirm that environmental filtering is the overriding influence on community assembly in these species-rich systems.

    6. You have free access to this content
      Maintenance of tree phylogenetic diversity in a highly fragmented rain forest (pages 702–711)

      Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Federico Escobar, Felipe P. L. Melo, Marcelo Tabarelli and Bráulio A. Santos

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01952.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study indicates that in the highly deforested and fragmented Los Tuxtlas rain forest, Mexico (a), the local extirpation of tree species does not occur across entire lineages (b). These novel and hopeful findings have direct implications for the ecology and conservation of fragmented rain forests. The maintenance of phylogenetic diversity in highly fragmented landscapes suggests that ecosystem function and stability may be maintained despite the loss of a number of tree species. We argue that in this unique Neotropical region, both large and small rain forest patches are critical for conserving regional tree evolutionary history.

    7. You have free access to this content
      Ecosystem transformation by emerging infectious disease: loss of large tanoak from California forests (pages 712–722)

      Richard C. Cobb, João A. N. Filipe, Ross K. Meentemeyer, Christopher A. Gilligan and David M. Rizzo

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01960.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This photo shows a tanoak stem killed by the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum that has developed basal sprouts, some of which have been killed by the pathogen. Basal sprouting maintains both the host and pathogen as part of the community which leads to reduced size and abundance of tanoak. This pattern is similar to several other forest diseases in North America.

    8. You have free access to this content
      Realistic plant species losses reduce invasion resistance in a California serpentine grassland (pages 723–731)

      Paul C. Selmants, Erika S. Zavaleta, Jae R. Pasari and Daniel L. Hernandez

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01949.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results illustrate that the functional consequences of realistic species losses can differ distinctly from those of randomized species losses and that incorporation of realistic species loss scenarios can increase the relevance of experiments linking biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to conservation in the face of anthropogenic global change.

  5. Plant development and life-history traits

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Hydraulic conductivity traits predict growth rates and adult stature of 40 Asian tropical tree species better than wood density (pages 732–741)

      Ze-Xin Fan, Shi-Bao Zhang, Guang-You Hao, J.W. Ferry Slik and Kun-Fang Cao

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01939.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We evaluated the covariation among wood density, xylem anatomical traits, diameter growth rate and adult stature in 40 tropical tree species. We found that xylem anatomical traits have a more significant influence on whole plant performance due to their direct association with stem hydraulic conductivity, whereas wood density is decoupled from hydraulic function due to complex variations in xylem components.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Forest productivity increases with evenness, species richness and trait variation: a global meta-analysis (pages 742–749)

      Yu Zhang, Han Y. H. Chen and Peter B. Reich

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01944.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our analysis is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the critical role of species evenness, which has a saturating relationship with richness, and the importance of contrasting traits in defining net diversity effects in forest polycultures. While testing the specific mechanisms is beyond the scope of our analysis, our results should motivate future studies to link richness, evenness, contrasting traits, and life history stage to the mechanisms that are expected to produce positive net biodiversity effects such as niche differentiation, facilitation, and reduced Janzen-Connell effects.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Maternal effects alter natural selection on phytochromes through seed germination (pages 750–757)

      Kathleen Donohue, Deepak Barua, Colleen Butler, Tracy E. Tisdale, George C. K. Chiang, Emily Dittmar and Rafael Rubio de Casas

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01954.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Natural selection on phytochromes occurs through their effects on seed germination, and maternal effects alter phytochrome contributions to germination. Therefore, maternal effects can alter natural selection on phytochromes. The results demonstrate a novel role of maternal effects in contributing to variable natural selection on specific genes associated with plant responses to climatic conditions.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Stabilizing selection for within-season flowering phenology confirms pollen limitation in a wind-pollinated tree (pages 758–763)

      Walter D. Koenig, Kyle A. Funk, Thomas S. Kraft, William J. Carmen, Brian C. Barringer and Johannes M. H. Knops

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01941.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      There is considerable variation within populations in tree phenology, as indicated by the differences in bud-burst by the two valley oaks (Quercus lobata) shown in the photo. Studying this species in central coastal California, we found that trees that leaf out and flower early and late in the season – when fewer other trees are leafing out – produce fewer acorns in the autumn than trees that leaf out during the middle of the season, despite considerable annual variation in acorn production. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that pollen limitation has a strong affect on within-year reproductive success in this wind-pollinated species. Pollen limitation in wind-pollinated trees affects many key aspects of their life-history including masting behaviour, spatial synchrony and within-year acorn production.

  6. Plant-climate interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Feedbacks between inundation, root production, and shoot growth in a rapidly submerging brackish marsh (pages 764–770)

      Matthew L. Kirwan and Glenn R. Guntenspergen

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01957.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Kirwan and Guntenspergen measured rates of root production in a rapidly submerging Chesapeake Bay marsh and found that plants at low elevations produce few roots that contribute to soil building. Their results suggest that the local marsh is in a runaway feedback where sea-level rise leads to reduced root production, lower rates of soil building, and further loss of relative wetland elevation.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Different genetic clines in response to temperature across the native and introduced ranges of a global plant invader (pages 771–781)

      Jake M. Alexander, Mark van Kleunen, Reto Ghezzi and Peter J. Edwards

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01951.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our experimental data support observational studies of niche-limit conservatism in non-native plants, which has important implications for their management. Specifically, it suggests that efforts to predict the extent of an invasion based on knowledge of the native niche are likely to be accurate at the level of the species, even if populations undergo genetic changes or respond differently to climatic gradients in the new range.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Reversal of multicentury tree growth improvements and loss of synchrony at mountain tree lines point to changes in key drivers (pages 782–794)

      Alex Fajardo and Eliot J. B. McIntire

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01955.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our study shows that at two structurally different tree lines, recent and initial declines in growth and losses of long-term synchrony are occurring in the latter part of the 20th century. These findings are opposite to simplistic expectations of global warming effects on tree line dynamics and call for a model reformulation that uncouples drivers of growth and recruitment.

  7. Plant-herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Herbivore pressure on goldenrod (Solidago altissima L., Asteraceae): its effects on herbivore resistance and vegetative reproduction (pages 795–801)

      Robert F. Bode and André Kessler

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01958.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results suggest that correlations between growth and resistance are context dependent and may only be apparent in populations relieved from certain natural pressures, such as in natural populations relieved from natural selection by herbivores.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Leaf ageing promotes the shift in defence tactics in Mallotus japonicus from direct to indirect defence (pages 802–809)

      Akira Yamawo, Nobuhiko Suzuki, Jun Tagawa and Yoshio Hada

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01934.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Young Mallotus japonicus (Euphorbiaceae) leaves are defended against herbivores through the use of direct defence traits such as trichomes and pellucid dots. However, the plant uses indirect defence traits for middle-aged leaves. This shift from direct defence to indirect defence with leaf ageing supports the ‘optimal defence theory’: plants have evolved multiple defence traits to maximize their fitness.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity of nutrient re-allocation and increased fine root production as putative tolerance mechanisms inducible by methyl jasmonate in pine trees (pages 810–820)

      Xoaquín Moreira, Rafael Zas and Luis Sampedro

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01938.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this paper, we showed that damage signalling by methyl-jasmonate (MJ) application in young pine trees involves two quick and strong induced responses putatively related with tolerance mechanisms: an intense preferential allocation of biomass to the fine roots system and a marked increase in the concentration of nutrients in the shoot. Boosting of fine roots appeared to be a generalized strategy with weak environmental modulation, whereas induced shifts in N and P to the shoots were strongly affected by soil P availability. Both tolerance mechanisms did not show significant genetic variation, that is, responses were consistent among families.

  8. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biological Flora of the British Isles: Campanula rotundifolia (pages 821–839)

      Carly J. Stevens, Julia Wilson and Hugh A. McAllister

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01963.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Campanula rotundifolia (Harebell) is widespread and cytologically diverse in the British Isles. Hexaploids have an oceanic, westerly/northerly distribution, tetraploids are more easterly/southern, and occasional pentaploids occur. It tolerates diverse climatic and soil conditions, becoming rare on fertile lowland clays, where there are more vigorous competitors. It is threatened by agricultural intensification, reversion of grassland to scrub, disturbance, and atmospheric pollution.

  9. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Plant-plant interactions
    3. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    6. Plant development and life-history traits
    7. Plant-climate interactions
    8. Plant-herbivore interactions
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum (page 840)

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01956.x

      This article corrects:

      Invasive legumes fix N2 at high rates in riparian areas of an N-saturated, agricultural catchment

      Vol. 99, Issue 2, 515–523, Article first published online: 19 JAN 2011

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION