Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 100 Issue 5

September 2012

Volume 100, Issue 5

Pages 1065–1288

  1. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Is climate a stronger driver of tree growth than disturbance? A comment on Toledo et al. (2011) (pages 1065–1068)

      Bruno Ferry, Jean-Daniel Bontemps, Lilian Blanc and Christopher Baraloto

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01895.x

    2. Driving factors of forest growth: a reply to Ferry et al. (2012) (pages 1069–1073)

      Marisol Toledo, Lourens Poorter, Marielos Peña-Claros, Alfredo Alarcón, Julio Balcázar, Claudio Leaño, Juan C. Licona, Oscar Llanque, Vincent Vroomans, Pieter A. Zuidema and Frans Bongers

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01990.x

  2. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Loss of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub in primary succession: consequences for plant and below-ground communities (pages 1074–1084)

      Mark G. St. John, Peter J. Bellingham, Lawrence R. Walker, Kate H. Orwin, Karen I. Bonner, Ian A. Dickie, Chris W. Morse, Gregor W. Yeates and David A. Wardle

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02000.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results reveal that loss of a single functionally distinct plant species, such as occurs through herbivore invasion, can cause substantial effects both above-ground and below-ground. This may affect the trajectory of the ecosystem over successional time, especially in primary seres that otherwise have very low soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) reservoirs. More generally, our results support the view that the simultaneous gains of some organisms (e.g. invasive herbivorous mammals) and resultant losses of others (e.g. palatable N-fixing plants) is a major element of human-induced global change that may be transforming many communities and ecosystems worldwide.

    2. Species and organ specificity of fungal endophytes in herbaceous grassland plants (pages 1085–1092)

      James A. Wearn, Brian C. Sutton, Neil J. Morley and Alan C. Gange

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01997.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In contrast to previous studies, the results show that many endophytes do not occur ubiquitously, but instead exhibit both plant and tissue specificity. There is a strong seasonal change in endophyte communities, but the differences between roots and shoots at any one time can be just as large. This dissimilarity suggests a lack of systemic growth by the fungi from one tissue to another. Mycorrhizas may interact negatively with other root endophytes, indicating that the latter should not be ignored in future mycorrhizal studies. We should begin to think of individual plants as ecosystems of interacting microbes, whose community is structured by plant genetics and environmental conditions, coupled with interactions between the microbes themselves.

  3. Plant-herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Continental-scale variability in browser diversity is a major driver of diversity patterns in acacias across Africa (pages 1093–1104)

      Michelle Greve, Anne M. Lykke, Christopher W. Fagg, Jan Bogaert, Ib Friis, Rob Marchant, Andrew R. Marshall, Joël Ndayishimiye, Brody S. Sandel, Christopher Sandom, Marco Schmidt, Jonathan R. Timberlake, Jan J. Wieringa, Georg Zizka and Jens-Christian Svenning

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01994.x

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      This is the first study that demonstrates that consumer diversity can influence richness patterns at continental scales, and demonstrates that biotic factors can drive richness even at broad spatial scales.

    2. Snail grazing facilitates growth of two morphologically similar bloom-forming Ulva species through different mechanisms (pages 1105–1112)

      Michele Guidone, Carol S. Thornber and Emily Vincent

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02002.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrated two mechanisms by which top-down forces can facilitate macroalgal growth: herbivore nitrogenous waste inputs and removal of microalgal fouling organisms. This facilitation may occur within the large mats of macroalgae that form during bloom events, exacerbating bloom conditions.

  4. Plant-climate interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Biomass partitioning and root morphology of savanna trees across a water gradient (pages 1113–1121)

      Kyle W. Tomlinson, Frank J. Sterck, Frans Bongers, Dulce A. da Silva, Eduardo R. M. Barbosa, David Ward, Freek T. Bakker, Martijn van Kaauwen, Herbert H. T. Prins, Steven de Bie and Frank van Langevelde

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01975.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Water stress has not selected biomass partitioning differences among seedlings of tree species from semi-arid (open bars) and humid (filled bars) savannas from three continents. High allocation to roots (RMF) and low allocation to stems (SMF) is associated with species of humid environments where fire is more frequent, indicating that selection by fire pressure supersedes any selection in response to water constraints. Species from semi-arid environments have superior root morphology for searching for deep water compared with species of humid environments, including faster taproot extension rates (RER) and more efficient taproot depth penetration (STRL), but they show no difference in mean relative growth rate (RGR).

    2. Endemic plant communities on special soils: early victims or hardy survivors of climate change? (pages 1122–1130)

      Ellen I. Damschen, Susan Harrison, David D. Ackerly, Barbara M. Fernandez-Going and Brian L. Anacker

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01986.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Little is known about how endemic-rich special soil plant communities will fair under climate change. We assess how spatial isolation, nutrient limitation, stress-tolerant functional traits, and other factors affect serpentine soil communities under climate change. Studies that compare effects on both special and ‘normal’ soil communities will be critical for understanding climate change risk for these botanically-rich communities.

    3. Size is not everything for desiccation-sensitive seeds (pages 1131–1140)

      James P. Hill, Will Edwards and Peter J. Franks

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02005.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our findings reveal an axis of trait variability among desiccation-sensitive seeds that is orthogonal to size. These traits might be important in surviving pre-germination environmental conditions, independent of the advantages and/or disadvantages that size has been shown to confer on seed survival and seedling establishment. The implication of this finding is that seed size alone may not account for pre-germination viability in desiccation-sensitive seeds and may be inadequate to predict long-term persistence of these species if climate changes occur on the scale predicted.

    4. Pollination mode predicts phenological response to climate change in terrestrial orchids: a case study from central Europe (pages 1141–1152)

      Attila Molnár V, Jácint Tökölyi, Zsolt Végvári, Gábor Sramkó, József Sulyok and Zoltán Barta

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02003.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our investigation demonstrates that the majority of Hungarian orchids have shifted their yearly mean flowering to earlier dates during the past 50 years. Certain life-history traits, but not phylogenetic relatedness were found to be important in predicting climatic responsiveness in European terrestrial orchids.

  5. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Leaf traits and litter flammability: evidence for non-additive mixture effects in a temperate forest (pages 1153–1163)

      Rita M. Q. de Magalhães and Dylan W. Schwilk

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01987.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We have demonstrated positive non-additive effects in mixtures of leaf litter. The most flammable constituent species of a mixture has disproportionate effects on the fire environment faced by the entire community. This could potentially influence community assembly and alter the selective environment faced by co-occuring species.

    2. Landscape context and management regime structure plant diversity in grassland communities (pages 1164–1173)

      Reto Schmucki, Josefin Reimark, Regina Lindborg and Sara A. O. Cousins

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01988.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study shows evidence that plant diversity is structured through the interplay between local and landscape processes. Although local conditions constrain species distribution through environmental filtering, plant diversity is not independent from species composition in adjacent habitats. We emphasize the need to account for composition and management of the surrounding landscape matrix to understand the mechanisms that structure and maintain diversity in complex landscapes.

    3. Resource-based habitat associations in a neotropical liana community (pages 1174–1182)

      James W. Dalling, Stefan A. Schnitzer, Claire Baldeck, Kyle E. Harms, Robert John, Scott A. Mangan, Elena Lobo, Joseph B. Yavitt and Stephen P. Hubbell

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01989.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The habitat preferences of liana species in central Panama were compared to tree species with similar abundances. Relative to trees, few lianas showed associations with either topography or soil chemistry. However, most liana species were more abundant than expected in areas of low canopy height suggesting forest disturbance is a driver of observed increases in liana abundance in neotropical forest.

    4. Trait evolution and the coexistence of a species swarm in the tropical forest understorey (pages 1183–1193)

      Brian E. Sedio, S. Joseph Wright and Christopher W. Dick

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01993.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results suggest that the 20 species of Psychotria treelets found on Barro Colorado Island, Panama occur in phylogenetically clustered assemblages as a result of environmental filtering of evolutionarily conserved hydraulic traits. We suggest that close relatives are unlikely to exclude one another from shared habitats because resource availability is determined largely by asymmetric competition with the overstorey.

    5. Evolution of dispersal traits in a biogeographical context: a study using the heterocarpic Rumex bucephalophorus as a model (pages 1194–1203)

      María Talavera, Montserrat Arista and Pedro L. Ortiz

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01999.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Most models describing the evolution of dispersal strategies assume that forces selecting for decreased dispersability also select for decreased dispersal distances. However, in Rumex bucephalophorus dispersal distance and dispersability showed contrasting patterns of variation. The fact that these two traits are differently determined could suggest that they can respond in a different manner to selective pressures.

  6. Invasion ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Multiple competitive mechanisms underlie the effects of a strong invader on early- to late-seral tree seedlings (pages 1204–1215)

      Lauren S. Urgenson, Sarah H. Reichard and Charles B. Halpern

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01995.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate that strong invaders can displace co-occurring native species through multiple mechanisms that are consistent with the functional traits of native species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to relate community-level impacts of an invader to the combined effects of resource exploitation and interference of below-ground mutualisms. Where invaders have the ability to displace early- to late-seral dominants, the consequences for community structure and ecosystem functioning can be profound.

    2. Can floral traits predict an invasive plant's impact on native plant–pollinator communities? (pages 1216–1223)

      Michelle R. Gibson, David M. Richardson and Anton Pauw

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02004.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Results advance our understanding of the role of plant traits in ecological communities and reveal that they are important in mediating not only plant-pollinator interactions but also plant-plant interactions. Our findings also shed light on invasive-native plant interactions via pollinators and have the potential to predict certain invasion impacts.

  7. Plant population and community dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Strong persistent growth differences govern individual performance and population dynamics in a tropical forest understorey palm (pages 1224–1232)

      Merel Jansen, Pieter A. Zuidema, Niels P. R. Anten and Miguel Martínez-Ramos

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02001.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Differences in performance between individuals have important but largely unknown demographic implications. We detected strong and persistent growth differences between individual palms. Population models showed that fast growers contributed twice as much to population growth compared to slow growers. This illustrates the key role of fast growers in plant population dynamics.

    2. Sapwood area drives growth in mountain conifer forests (pages 1233–1244)

      J. Diego Galván, J. Julio Camarero, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Arben Q. Alla and Emilia Gutiérrez

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01983.x

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      Our results highlight the relevance of tree individual characteristics as the main drivers modulating growth responses to climate warming. We conclude that climate warming will have a lower effect on radial growth in slow-growing high elevation trees than in fast-growing low elevation trees, which produce a greater sapwood area. Trees may become relatively insensitive to climate as they age and reach a size-related functional threshold linked to reduced sapwood production.

    3. Resilience to chronic defoliation in a dioecious understorey tropical rain forest palm (pages 1245–1256)

      Leonel Lopez-Toledo, Niels P. R. Anten, Bryan A. Endress, David D. Ackerly and Miguel Martínez-Ramos

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01992.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Experimental chronic defoliation over 3 years, in Chamaedorea elegans palms reduced survival, growth, and reproduction depending on gender. After defoliation stopped, recovery of the vital rates observed over the following 3 years was slower in females than males. This lower resilience may have profound long-lasting consequences for the dynamics and genetic variability of palm populations undergoing prolonged defoliation. Such effects may be aggravated by severe drought episodes caused by El Niño Southern-Oscillation events, which are expected to increase in frequency.

    4. Spatial contiguity and continuity of canopy gaps in mixed wood boreal forests: persistence, expansion, shrinkage and displacement (pages 1257–1268)

      Udayalakshmi Vepakomma, Daniel Kneeshaw and Marie-Josée Fortin

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01996.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Small canopy gaps are considered ephemeral which would favour the recruitment of late successional species. Spatio-temporal analyses of a sequence of lidar canopy surfaces in high-latitude old-growth boreal forests, on the contrary indicate persistence and pervasiveness of gaps through displacement and expansion. These mechanisms may explain the previously observed maintenance of favourable conditions for the recruitment of shade intolerant individuals.

  8. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    4. Plant-herbivore interactions
    5. Plant-climate interactions
    6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    7. Invasion ecology
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biological Flora of the British Isles: Gymnadenia conopsea s.l. (pages 1269–1288)

      Tine Meekers, Michael J. Hutchings, Olivier Honnay and Hans Jacquemyn

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02006.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gymnadenia conopsea s.l. is a nectar-rewarding, insect-pollinated, terrestrial orchid that avoids shade; it is widely distributed in well-drained calcareous grasslands, and calcareous fens and fen-meadows with short vegetation, but is also occasionally found on heaths. It comprises three recently-recognized segregate species: G. conopsea s.s., G. densiflora and G. borealis, whose individual distributions in the British Isles and ecological properties are still rather poorly known.

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