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Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 100 Issue 6

November 2012

Volume 100, Issue 6

Pages 1289–1611

  1. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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    2. You have free access to this content
      A general modelling framework for resource-ratio and CSR theories of plant community dynamics (pages 1296–1302)

      Franck Jabot and Julien Pottier

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02024.x

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      Our modelling analysis reveals that the resource-ratio and CSR theories make different predictions regarding competition on poor soils, not because of their differing schemes of plant strategies, but because of the different disturbance types that they are considering. Tilman's predictions apply to little disturbed natural habitats, whilst Grime's predictions apply to disturbed ones.

  2. Essay review

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change (pages 1303–1314)

      Pablo García-Palacios, Fernando T. Maestre, Richard D. Bardgett and Hans de Kroon

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02014.x

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      There is enough evidence to affirm that soil heterogeneity modulates plant responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 and N enrichment. Our synthesis indicates that we must explicitly consider soil heterogeneity to accurately predict plant responses to GC drivers.

  3. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Evidence for a ‘plant community economics spectrum’ driven by nutrient and water limitations in a Mediterranean rangeland of southern France (pages 1315–1327)

      Ignacio M. Pérez-Ramos, Catherine Roumet, Pablo Cruz, Alain Blanchard, Paul Autran and Eric Garnier

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12000

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      The novel information provided by this study contributes to our understanding on the drivers of community assembly in Mediterranean rangelands, the functional links established between the above- and the below-ground components and the relative importance of the two main mechanisms (species turnover versus intraspecific variability) promoting functional adaptations of plant communities along field resource gradients.

  4. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Spatial variation in below-ground seed germination and divergent mycorrhizal associations correlate with spatial segregation of three co-occurring orchid species (pages 1328–1337)

      Hans Jacquemyn, Rein Brys, Bart Lievens and Thorsten Wiegand

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01998.x

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      Understanding the many factors that affect community composition and coexistence of species in natural environments is one of the central goals in ecology. In this study, we combined molecular identification techniques with seed germination experiments and spatial point pattern analyses to show that the presence of specific mycorrhizal fungi contributed to the spatial distribution and coexistence of three co-occurring orchid species (Anacamptis morio, Gymnadenia conopsea and Orchis mascula).

  5. Ecophysiology

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      The evolutionary loss of aerenchyma limits both realized and fundamental ecohydrological niches in the Cape reeds (Restionaceae) (pages 1338–1348)

      Meret Huber and Hans P. Linder

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02022.x

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      The study provides evidence that functional traits such as aerenchyma can effectively predict species niches, and evolution of these traits may constrain the habitats available to the clades. We underpin the importance of understanding the causal driver of the local distribution of species for making robust predictions of species range shifts under climate change.

  6. Plant–animal interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Short seed-dispersal distances and low seedling recruitment in farmland populations of bird-dispersed cherry trees (pages 1349–1358)

      Nils Breitbach, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Irina Laube and Matthias Schleuning

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12001

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      Our findings show that behavioural differences of animal seed dispersers between habitat types can result in substantial changes in seed-dispersal distances and locations in human-modified habitats. These changes in seed-dispersal services for bird-dispersed plant species may be related to reduced seedling recruitment in farmland populations making such populations prone to extinction in the long term.

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      Variation and constraints of local adaptation of a long-lived plant, its pollinators and specialist herbivores (pages 1359–1372)

      Aino Kalske, Anne Muola, Liisa Laukkanen, Pia Mutikainen and Roosa Leimu

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02008.x

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      These results demonstrate that species interactions can lead to a mosaic of locally adapted plant, herbivore and pollinator populations. In addition to natural enemies, genetic variation, the abiotic environment, and mutualistic interactions contribute to the evolution of local adaptation in long-lived plants. These results provide new insights into the patterns and causes of variation in local adaptation, and are among the first to demonstrate that conflicting selection pressures within a population do not constrain local adaptation in multiple traits.

  7. Invasion ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Predicting invasiveness and range size in wetland plants using biological traits: a multivariate experimental approach (pages 1373–1382)

      Stephen M. Hovick, Chris J. Peterson and Walter P. Carson

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02013.x

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      Relationships between the invasiveness traits index (PCA Axis 1) and literature-based invasiveness from (a) Holm et al.'s (1979) A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds and (b) Randall's (2002) A Global Compendium of Weeds.

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      Biotic resistance: exclusion of native rodent consumers releases populations of a weak invader (pages 1383–1390)

      Dean E. Pearson, Teal Potter and John L. Maron

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02025.x

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      Tragopogon dubius occurs widely across North America as an exotic naturalized weed. Long-term rodent exclosures combined with seed addition experiments indicate that biotic resistance from rodent florivory and seed predation strongly suppress this weed. These results suggest that biotic resistance from native rodents may help to explain why this invader has not become a problematic invader.Tragopogon dubius can reach high densities in locations where herbivory and plant competition are reduced. Photo taken in Eastern Montana by Allison Lansverk.

  8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Direct and productivity-mediated indirect effects of fertilization, mowing and grazing on grassland species richness (pages 1391–1399)

      Stephanie A. Socher, Daniel Prati, Steffen Boch, Jörg Müller, Valentin H. Klaus, Norbert Hölzel and Markus Fischer

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02020.x

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      Our results clearly show the importance of studying both direct and indirect effects of land use intensity. They demonstrate the indirect nature, via productivity, of the negative effect of fertilization intensity on plant species richness in the real world context of management-induced gradients of intensity of fertilization, mowing and grazing. Finally, they highlight that careful consideration of regional environments is necessary before attempting to generalize land use effects on species diversity.

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      Which traits determine shifts in the abundance of tree species in a fire-prone savanna? (pages 1400–1410)

      Steven I. Higgins, William J. Bond, Henri Combrink, Joseph M. Craine, Edmund C. February, Navashni Govender, Kathryn Lannas, Glenn Moncreiff and Winston S. W. Trollope

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02026.x

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      Fire tolerance traits did explain a significant component of the variance in observed shifts in the abundance of tree species. However, traits related to the carbon economy of photosynthesis were also important. The relationship (solid line) between the stem diameter of a 2-m-tall tree (estimated from the allometric models in Fig. 1) and the probability of topkill of a 2-m-tall tree in a dry season fire of 2000 kW m−1 fire for common savanna tree species (this latter variables are the mean estimates from Fig. 3). The labels indicate the species names (see Table S1).

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      Differential seedling establishment of woody plants along a tree density gradient in Neotropical savannas (pages 1411–1421)

      Ana Salazar, Guillermo Goldstein, Augusto C. Franco and Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02028.x

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      In Neotropical savannas tree canopy cover facilitates seedling establishment of woody species by reducing stressful environmental conditions. In particular, low irradiance and high litter cover in closed savannas enhance the recruitment and survival of woody seedlings relative to open savannas by reducing soil water deficits and increasing nutrient availability in the upper soil layers. The higher seedling limitation of tree species in open than in closed savannas contributes to maintain relatively different balances between trees and herbaceous plants along topographic gradients in Neotropical savannas and helps to explain spatial distribution patterns of woody species in these ecosystems.

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      Community assembly along a soil depth gradient: contrasting patterns of plant trait convergence and divergence in a Mediterranean rangeland (pages 1422–1433)

      Maud Bernard-Verdier, Marie-Laure Navas, Mark Vellend, Cyrille Violle, Adeline Fayolle and Eric Garnier

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12003

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      This study highlights how the combination of abundance data with multiple plant traits capturing different functional dimensions may be critical to the detection of the complex functional responses of plant communities to environmental gradients. By contradicting and refining a number of widespread hypotheses from the literature, this study takes us further towards a general understanding of plant community assembly.

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      Do niche-structured plant communities exhibit phylogenetic conservatism? A test case in an endemic clade (pages 1434–1439)

      Yoseph N. Araya, Jonathan Silvertown, David J. Gowing, Kevin J. McConway, H. P. Linder and Guy Midgley

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12004

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      The demonstration that clear niche segregation may occur among related species without phylogenetic niche conservatism being detectable supports the hypothesis that hydrological niche responses are evolutionarily labile. More generally, the results demonstrate that phylogenetic analysis can be a poor guide to the process of community assembly. We argue that it may in future be better to apply ecological data to the interpretation of phylogenies, rather than to follow the current preoccupation with the application of phylogenies to ecology.

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      Functional traits and their plasticity predict tropical trees regeneration niche even among species with intermediate light requirements (pages 1440–1452)

      Marilyne Laurans, Olivier Martin, Eric Nicolini and Gregoire Vincent

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02007.x

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      This study demonstrates the relevance of considering the phenotypic plasticity in functional traits for quantifying breadth of tropical tree species distribution over canopy disturbance gradient. Furthermore, the results show that tropical tree species with intermediate light requirements are not functionally equivalent as hypothesized by the neutral theory of community assembly.

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      Effects of disturbance intensity on species and functional diversity in a tropical forest (pages 1453–1463)

      Geovana Carreño-Rocabado, Marielos Peña-Claros, Frans Bongers, Alfredo Alarcón, Juan-Carlos Licona and Lourens Poorter

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02015.x

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      Disturbances are widespread and may have important effects on community assembly and ecosystem processes. We use a large-scale logging experiment in a tropical forest and show that 8 years after logging, there are little changes in species tree diversity and functional diversity. There were, however, clear shifts in community functional composition towards “fast” species with more acquisitive traits, thus potentially fuelling primary productivity, nutrient- and carbon cycling.

  9. Plant population and community dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Optimal resource allocation in a serotinous non-resprouting plant species under different fire regimes (pages 1464–1474)

      Jeanne Tonnabel, Tom J.M. Van Dooren, Jeremy Midgley, Patsy Haccou, Agnès Mignot, Ophélie Ronce and Isabelle Olivieri

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02023.x

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      Life-history trade-offs and low predictability of fire intervals may favour low rather than strong serotiny levels. Once adapted to some historical fire regime, serotinous populations are sensitive to a change in fire frequency and to an increase in the variance of fire intervals. Populations adapted to a historically high variance in fire return are more robust to fire regime changes.

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      Extirpation-resistant species do not always compensate for the decline in ecosystem processes associated with biodiversity loss (pages 1475–1481)

      Thomas W. Davies, Stuart R. Jenkins, Rachel Kingham, Stephen J. Hawkins and Jan G. Hiddink

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02012.x

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      These results suggest that we cannot assume extirpation-resistant species will compensate for the decline in ecosystem processes associated with biodiversity loss across all ecosystems. Understanding those factors that influence the ability of ecosystems to compensate for declines in ecosystem processes associated with biodiversity loss constitutes a significant challenge.

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      Differences between symmetric and asymmetric facilitation matter: exploring the interplay between modes of positive and negative plant interactions (pages 1482–1491)

      Yue Lin, Uta Berger, Volker Grimm and Qian-Ru Ji

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02019.x

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      Our modelling study is the first to quantitatively define different modes of facilitation. We showed that facilitation have an important influence on plant population structure. Different modes of facilitation and competition can affect different aspects of populations, implying context-dependent outcomes and consequences. An explicit consideration of modes of facilitation and competition is crucial for understanding plant population and community dynamics.

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      Seed size and provenance mediate the joint effects of disturbance and seed predation on community assembly (pages 1492–1500)

      John L. Maron, Dean E. Pearson, Teal Potter and Yvette K. Ortega

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02027.x

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      These results reveal that local ‘filters’ such as post-dispersal seed predation and disturbance can individually and collectively impose strong limitation on seedling recruitment into local assemblages. Seed size importantly predicts how strongly individual species are influenced by these local filters. Interestingly, in situ community filters have differential effects on native versus exotic species, suggesting that processes that limit native recruitment may not have the same inhibitory influence on exotics.

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      One-sided competition for light promotes coexistence of forest trees that share the same adult height (pages 1501–1511)

      Takashi S. Kohyama and Takenori Takada

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02029.x

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      We show with a simple theoretical model that demographic trade-offs among tree species with identical demographic responses to shade promotes stable coexistence through vertical foliage partitioning via demographic trade-offs. This mechanism works independently of the coexistence mechanism through horizontal partitioning of patch mosaic, which is associated with inter-specific difference in shade tolerance.

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      Plant species diversity and genetic diversity within a dominant species interactively affect plant community biomass (pages 1512–1521)

      Kerri M. Crawford and Jennifer A. Rudgers

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02016.x

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      In simultaneous manipulations of plant species diversity and genetic diversity within a dominant species, we found that species diversity and genetic diversity interacted to influence community-level primary productivity. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating interactions among levels of biodiversity into our understanding of how biodiversity influences ecosystem function.

  10. Reproductive ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Species traits and plant performance: functional trade-offs in a large set of species in a botanical garden (pages 1522–1533)

      Tomáš Herben, Zuzana Nováková, Jitka Klimešová and Lubomír Hrouda

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02018.x

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      The results suggest that trade-offs between vegetative and seed reproduction are not revealed by analysis of species traits, probably due to the fact that trade-offs often only arise due to life-history costs that are shaped by the local environment. This highlights the importance of examining life history processes associated with trait values.

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      Pollination linkage between canopy flowering, bumble bee abundance and seed production of understorey plants in a cool temperate forest (pages 1534–1543)

      Naoki Inari, Tsutom Hiura, Masanori J. Toda and Gaku Kudo

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02021.x

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      Synthesis. The dynamics of flower production in overstory trees can indirectly affect the pollination efficiency of understorey plants in the next season via the population dynamics of pollinators. Our results suggest that a cascade effect occurs through pollination networks in a cool-temperate forest ecosystem.

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      Defoliation and gender effects on fitness components in three congeneric and sympatric understorey palms (pages 1544–1556)

      Juan C. Hernández-Barrios, Niels P. R. Anten, David D. Ackerly and Miguel Martínez-Ramos

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02011.x

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      Using three dioecious understorey palm (Chamaedorea) species, we tested the hypothesis that females are less tolerant than males to increased levels of sustained defoliation. Results did not support the hypothesis aslife-history and functional trait effects of defoliation were mostly similar between genders. We discuss the ecological implications of these results and their importance for designing sustainable leaf harvesting regimes.

  11. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
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      Biological Flora of the British Isles: Fagus sylvatica (pages 1557–1608)

      John R. Packham, Peter A. Thomas, Mark D. Atkinson and Thomas Degen

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02017.x

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      Fagus sylvatica is an important, shade-tolerant, native tree dominating the woodlands of S.E. England and extensively planted elsewhere, especially as a forestry tree. Its distribution is currently expanding in central Europe, but with climate change its range may well contract except in the north. Its susceptibility to Phytophthora diseases is a potential widespread threat to its future.

  12. Corrigenda

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Essay review
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    6. Ecophysiology
    7. Plant–animal interactions
    8. Invasion ecology
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    13. Corrigenda
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum (pages 1609–1610)

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02010.x

      This article corrects:

      Complex interactions between the wind and ballistic seed dispersal in Impatiens glandulifera (Royle)

      Vol. 100, Issue 4, 874–883, Article first published online: 23 APR 2012

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      Corrigendum (page 1611)

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.02009.x

      This article corrects:

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