Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 101 Issue 2

March 2013

Volume 101, Issue 2

Pages 265–544

  1. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Special Feature – Essay Review

      Plant–soil feedbacks: the past, the present and future challenges (pages 265–276)

      Wim H. van der Putten, Richard D. Bardgett, James D. Bever, T. Martijn Bezemer, Brenda B. Casper, Tadashi Fukami, Paul Kardol, John N. Klironomos, Andrew Kulmatiski, Jennifer A. Schweitzer, Katherine N. Suding, Tess F. J. Van de Voorde and David A. Wardle

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12054

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gaining a greater understanding of plant–soil feedbacks and underlying mechanisms is improving our ability to predict consequences of these interactions for plant community composition and productivity under a variety of conditions. Future research will enable better prediction and mitigation of the consequences of human-induced global changes, improve efforts of restoration and conservation, and promote sustainable provision of ecosystem services in a rapidly changing world.

    2. Special Feature – Papers

      Soil heterogeneity generated by plant–soil feedbacks has implications for species recruitment and coexistence (pages 277–286)

      Angela J. Brandt, Hans de Kroon, Heather L. Reynolds and Jean H. Burns

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Heterogeneity generated by plant–soil feedbacks had species-specific effects on vital rates, with consequences for recruitment dynamics. Mixing soils of different origin often resulted in non-additive effects, which may indicate an interaction between soil abiotic and/or biotic properties. Quantifying the reciprocal effects of PSFs suggests PSF-generated heterogeneity may promote coexistence of certain species, which was not evident from individual PSF responses.

    3. Independent variations of plant and soil mixtures reveal soil feedback effects on plant community overyielding (pages 287–297)

      Marloes Hendriks, Liesje Mommer, Hannie de Caluwe, Annemiek E. Smit-Tiekstra, Wim H. van der Putten and Hans de Kroon

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12032

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results show that overyielding in four-plant species mixtures can be due to species-specific interactions between plants and their specific soil biota. Neither mixing the plant species alone nor the differential responses of species to mineral nitrogen influenced community productivity, but mixing soil biota did.

    4. Consequences of plant–soil feedbacks in invasion (pages 298–308)

      Katharine N. Suding, William Stanley Harpole, Tadashi Fukami, Andrew Kulmatiski, Andrew S. MacDougall, Claudia Stein and Wim H. van der Putten

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Overlaying empirical estimates of pairwise plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) with spatial simulations, we conclude that the empirically measured PSFs between native and exotic plant species are often not consistent with predictions of the spread of exotic species and mono-dominance. This is particularly the case when exotic species are initially rare and share similar dispersal and average fitness characteristics with native species. However, disturbance and other processes that increase the abundance of exotic species as well as the inclusion of species dispersal and life history differences can interact with PSF effects and lead to spread of invasive species.

    5. Special Feature – Forum

      Biotic plant–soil feedbacks across temporal scales (pages 309–315)

      Paul Kardol, Gerlinde B. De Deyn, Etienne Laliberté, Pierre Mariotte and Christine V. Hawkes

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12046

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We synthesize current knowledge on temporal aspects of plant–soil feedbacks and present new ideas to better understand and predict the effects of plant–soil feedbacks on community and ecosystem properties across temporal scales. We suggest three main avenues for future research: (i) how plant–soil feedback changes with ontogeny, (ii) how plant and soil organism traits drive temporal variation in plant–soil feedbacks, and (iii) how environmental changes across temporal scales alter the strength and direction of plant–soil feedbacks.

    6. Special Feature – Papers

      Complex plant–soil interactions enhance plant species diversity by delaying community convergence (pages 316–324)

      Tadashi Fukami and Mifuyu Nakajima

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study proposes a new hypothesis regarding the maintenance of plant species diversity, namely that complex plant-soil interactions cause local plant communities to enter into a prolonged period of species turnover, resulting in transient, yet long-lasting maintenance of the high regional diversity that reflects variable history of species immigration early in succession.

    7. Above- and below-ground herbivory effects on below-ground plant–fungus interactions and plant–soil feedback responses (pages 325–333)

      T. Martijn Bezemer, Wim H. van der Putten, Henk Martens, Tess F. J. van de Voorde, Patrick P. J. Mulder and Olga Kostenko

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12045

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results illustrate how insect herbivory can affect interactions between plants and soil organisms, and via these effects can alter the performance of later growing plants. Plant-soil feedback is emerging as an important theme in ecology and these results highlight that plant–soil feedback should be considered from a multitrophic above-ground-below-ground perspective.

    8. Special Feature – Forum

      Hierarchical responses of plant–soil interactions to climate change: consequences for the global carbon cycle (pages 334–343)

      Richard D. Bardgett, Pete Manning, Elly Morriën and Franciska T. De Vries

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12043

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The framework presented here highlights a need for a new approach to the study of climate change impacts on plant–soil interactions and carbon cycling that integrates this hierarchy of responses, and incorporates the decoupling of above-ground and below-ground networks, across a range of temporal and spatial scales, and ecosystems.

  2. Ecosystem services

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. An improved model to predict the effects of changing biodiversity levels on ecosystem function (pages 344–355)

      John Connolly, Thomas Bell, Thomas Bolger, Caroline Brophy, Timothee Carnus, John A. Finn, Laura Kirwan, Forest Isbell, Jonathan Levine, Andreas Lüscher, Valentin Picasso, Christiane Roscher, Maria Teresa Sebastia, Matthias Suter and Alexandra Weigelt

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We show that Generalized Diversity-Interactions models quantitatively integrate several methods that separately address effects of species richness, evenness and composition on ecosystem function. They describe empirical data at least as well as alternative models and improve the ability to quantitatively test among several theoretical and practical hypotheses about the effects of biodiversity levels on ecosystem function. They improve our understanding of important aspects of the relationship between biodiversity (evenness and richness) and ecosystem function (BEF), which include saturation, effects of species loss, the stability of ecosystem function and the incidence of transgressive overyielding.

  3. Palaeoecology and land-use history

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Multi-millennial fire frequency and tree abundance differ between xeric and mesic boreal forests in central Canada (pages 356–367)

      Dominic Senici, Aurore Lucas, Han Y. H. Chen, Yves Bergeron, Alayn Larouche, Benoit Brossier, Olivier Blarquez and Adam A. Ali

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12047

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results show contrasting fire regime dynamics between a xeric and mesic landscape in central boreal forests, Canada. These results highlight the influence of local factors as important drivers of fire frequency at centennial to millennial scales. Local site factors, especially soil moisture, need to be incorporated into predictive models of vegetation response to climate change.

    2. You have free access to this content
      The ancient forests of La Gomera, Canary Islands, and their sensitivity to environmental change (pages 368–377)

      Sandra Nogué, Lea de Nascimento, José María Fernández-Palacios, Robert J. Whittaker and Kathy J. Willis

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12051

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A rapid climatic-induced shift of forest taxa occurred 5500 years ago, with a decrease in hygrophilous species in the pollen record. In contrast, we found no evidence of a significant response to human colonization. These findings support the idea that Garajonay National Park is protecting a truly ancient relict, comprising a largely natural rather than cultural legacy.

  4. Invasion ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Evolution of fast-growing and more resistant phenotypes in introduced common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) (pages 378–387)

      Sabrina Kumschick, Ruth A. Hufbauer, Christina Alba and Dana M. Blumenthal

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Together, high biomass, strong responses to high water-availability and low root:shoot ratio suggest that mullein has evolved a fast-growing, weedy phenotype in its introduced range rather than adapting to a low water environment through increased root growth. Although fast-growing plants can be more palatable to herbivores, in this case there does not appear to be a trade-off between growth and defense against a generalist herbivore. Mullein appears to have evolved to be both faster-growing and better defended in the introduced range.

    2. Enemy damage of exotic plant species is similar to that of natives and increases with productivity (pages 388–399)

      Petr Dostál, Eric Allan, Wayne Dawson, Mark van Kleunen, Igor Bartish and Markus Fischer

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12037

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We identified habitat productivity as a major community factor affecting accumulation of enemy damage by exotic populations. Similar damage levels in exotic and native congeneric populations, even in species pairs from fertile habitats, suggest that the Enemy Release Hypothesis or the Resource-Enemy Release Hypothesis cannot always explain the invasiveness of introduced species.

  5. Plant–herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. What happens when ants fail at plant defence? Cordia nodosa dynamically adjusts its investment in both direct and indirect resistance traits in response to herbivore damage (pages 400–409)

      Megan E. Frederickson, Alison Ravenscraft, Lina M. Arcila Hernández, Gregory Booth, Viviana Astudillo and Gabriel A. Miller

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12034

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      How do ant-plants cope with the vagaries of biotic defenders? We found that the ant-plant Cordia nodosa induces both direct and indirect defenses when ants fail to adequately to defend it against herbivory. Our results suggest that C. nodosa retains direct defenses as insurance against varying levels of protection from its ant bodyguards.

    2. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles provide associational resistance against an ovipositing herbivore (pages 410–417)

      Ali Zakir, Medhat M. Sadek, Marie Bengtsson, Bill S. Hansson, Peter Witzgall and Peter Anderson

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Herbivore-induced volatiles (HIPVs) from cotton plants were found to provide associational resistance by affecting the oviposition behaviour in the moth Spodoptera littoralis. Our results suggest that the presence of HIPV-emitting plant neighbours can reduce herbivory on undamaged plants and enhance plant resistance by reducing insect herbivore attack.

    3. Plant apparency, an overlooked driver of associational resistance to insect herbivory (pages 418–429)

      Bastien Castagneyrol, Brice Giffard, Christelle Péré and Hervé Jactel

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12055

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      These findings suggest that greater host dilution and lower tree apparency contribute to associational resistance in young trees. They also highlight the importance of taking plant size into account as a covariate, to avoid misleading interpretations about the biodiversity–resistance relationship.

  6. Plant–climate interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Leaf adaptations of evergreen and deciduous trees of semi-arid and humid savannas on three continents (pages 430–440)

      Kyle W. Tomlinson, Lourens Poorter, Frank J. Sterck, Fabian Borghetti, David Ward, Steven de Bie and Frank van Langevelde

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Evergreen (E) and deciduous (D) tree species have distinctive leaf traits, but leaf traits change similarly between humid (H) and semi-arid (SA) savannas. Species from the three continents can be distinguished by their leaf traits, reflecting differences in leaf habit abundance and differences in soil fertility. Water stress in savannas may select for rapid adjustment to water conditions and for heat avoidance.

    2. Chasing a moving target: projecting climate change-induced shifts in non-equilibrial tree species distributions (pages 441–453)

      Raúl García-Valdés, Miguel A. Zavala, Miguel B. Araújo and Drew W. Purves

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our analysis suggests that geographic ranges and abundances of the ten most common tree species in Spain are not in equilibrium with current climatic conditions. We show that given enough time species abundances and geographic ranges would increase without climate change. So, understanding the effects of climate change on species abundances and geographic ranges requires a comparison between a baseline scenario of non-equilibrial range dynamics without climate change and scenarios including climate change forcing.

  7. Plant–plant interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Effects of litter on seedling establishment in natural and semi-natural grasslands: a meta-analysis (pages 454–464)

      Alejandro Loydi, R. Lutz Eckstein, Annette Otte and Tobias W. Donath

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12033

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Climate and land use change may promote litter accumulation in grassland systems. Our meta-analysis shows that under dry conditions or with intermediate litter amounts, seedling establishment may be enhanced. However, since the magnitude and direction of litter effects on recruitment interact with environment, litter amount and species traits, increased litter accumulation may strongly change the composition and diversity of grasslands.

    2. Spatial and temporal variability in positive and negative plant–bryophyte interactions along a latitudinal gradient (pages 465–474)

      Simon W. Doxford, Mark K. J. Ooi and Robert P. Freckleton

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study shows that there may be extreme spatio-temporal variation in the strength and direction of plant–bryophyte interactions along environmental gradients, with substantial changes in their impact over a short time period. Our results suggest that the Stress Gradient Hypothesis may operate within and along gradients, as well as inter-annually. This may therefore play a role in buffering plant population dynamics.

    3. Initial density affects biomass–density and allometric relationships in self-thinning populations of Fagopyrum esculentum (pages 475–483)

      Lei Li, Jacob Weiner, Daowei Zhou, Yingxin Huang and Lianxi Sheng

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12039

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The self-thinning trajectory is not always independent of initial population density. Inter-population scaling patterns, even within one species, do not reflect processes within populations, and this conflation lies behind much of the current debate about size-density relationships in plant populations and communities. Interactions among plants and allometry are more important than internal physiological scaling mechanisms in determining the self-thinning trajectory of crowded stands.

  8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Trait-based climate change predictions of plant community structure in arid steppes (pages 484–492)

      Cédric Frenette-Dussault, Bill Shipley, Driss Meziane and Yves Hingrat

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We used a novel statistical method based on plant functional traits and the principle of maximum entropy to predict actual and future plant community structure under various climate change scenarios in the arid steppes of eastern Morocco. Our results show that even the least severe scenario, in terms of aridity, will lead to woody encroachment, thus reducing ecosystem services.

    2. Patterns and drivers of β-diversity and similarity of Lobaria pulmonaria communities in Italian forests (pages 493–505)

      Juri Nascimbene, Renato Benesperi, Giorgio Brunialti, Immacolata Catalano, Marilena D. Vedove, Maria Grillo, Deborah Isocrono, Enrica Matteucci, Giovanna Potenza, Domenico Puntillo, Michele Puntillo, Sonia Ravera, Guido Rizzi and Paolo Giordani

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, we used a new approach for analysing a countrywide data set improving the ecological understanding of the dynamics regulating epiphytic communities. In particular, this study improves the understanding of the contribution of different components of diversity across two spatial scales and evaluates the relative importance of environmental predictors in explaining variation of each diversity component.

    3. Strong congruence in tree and fern community turnover in response to soils and climate in central Panama (pages 506–516)

      Mirkka M. Jones, Simon Ferrier, Richard Condit, Glenn Manion, Salomon Aguilar and Rolando Pérez

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We found highly correlated species turnover patterns of trees and understorey pteridophytes in forests of the Panama canal watershed, attributable to plant responses to both soil chemistry and climate (especially phosphorus and dry season length). The independent effects of geographical separation were weak. Strong cross-taxon congruence suggests our results will also hold for other components of the flora.

  9. Plant development and life-history traits

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Costs and benefits of relative bark thickness in relation to fire damage: a savanna/forest contrast (pages 517–524)

      Michael J. Lawes, Jeremy J. Midgley and Peter J. Clarke

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12035

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bark thickness is a widely accepted trait of individual fire resistance. The indicator value of absolute bark thickness depends on stem size and species differences, while relative bark thickness does not. By contrasting the costs and benefits of relatively thick bark between congeneric species pairs from forest and savanna, we show that relative bark thickness is an important functional trait offering insights to the evolution of species persistence in fire-prone habitats.

  10. Reproductive ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Are stored carbohydrates necessary for seed production in temperate deciduous trees? (pages 525–531)

      Tomoaki Ichie, Shuichi Igarashi, Shohei Yoshida, Tanaka Kenzo, Takashi Masaki and Ichiro Tayasu

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12038

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our results clearly show that canopy trees used photosynthates produced in the current and/or the previous year for seed production regardless of reproductive intervals. It might therefore be necessary to reconsider the importance of stored carbohydrate resources for masting.

  11. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANT – SOIL FEEDBACKS IN A CHANGING WORLD
    3. Ecosystem services
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–herbivore interactions
    7. Plant–climate interactions
    8. Plant–plant interactions
    9. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    10. Plant development and life-history traits
    11. Reproductive ecology
    12. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biological Flora of the British Isles: Silene suecica (pages 532–544)

      Laszlo Nagy

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12058

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silene suecica is a small arctic-alpine plant found on fell-field and rocky outcrops at just two localities in the British Isles, although it is common elsewhere in its circumboreal range. It often occurs on ultramafic soils, or those with otherwise elevated concentrations of heavy metals. An insect-pollinated, (semi-)rosette plant with a strong taproot and no capacity for vegetative spread, it depends on seed production to maintain its populations.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION