Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Journal of Ecology

September 2013

Volume 101, Issue 5

Pages 1085–1368

  1. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Nutrient limitation along the Jurien Bay dune chronosequence: response to Uren & Parsons (2013) (pages 1088–1092)

      Etienne Laliberté, Benjamin L. Turner, Graham Zemunik, Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll, Stuart J. Pearse and Hans Lambers

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12123

  2. Invasion ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Soil microbial community structure of range-expanding plant species differs from co-occurring natives (pages 1093–1102)

      Elly Morriën and Wim H. van der Putten

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12117

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      We conclude that the lack of legacy effects in range-expanding plant species compared to natives may be due to differences in bacterial rhizosphere community composition, or to different quantities of potential pathogenic fungi. If the range-expanding plant species were benefiting more from AMF, effects will not have been due to differences in community composition, but we cannot exclude other options, such as different effectiveness of AMF or other soil biota in the rhizosphere of range-expanding versus native plant species. The greater accumulation of bacterial and fungal pathogens in the rhizosphere of natives in relation to range expanders might explain the successful establishment of range-expanding plants.

    2. Reduced availability of rhizobia limits the performance but not invasiveness of introduced Acacia (pages 1103–1113)

      Elizabeth M. Wandrag, Andy Sheppard, Richard P. Duncan and Philip E. Hulme

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12126

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      In New Zealand introduced Acacia are likely to suffer reduced growth and nodulation away from established conspecifics or congeners, which may limit their ability to establish and spread away from introduction sites. However, this limitation was the same for three species that vary in the degree to which they have spread, implying that interactions with soil biota cannot explain differences in spread between these species.

    3. Functional group dominance and identity effects influence the magnitude of grassland invasion (pages 1114–1124)

      Grisel Longo, Tristram G. Seidler, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Pedro M. Tognetti and Enrique J. Chaneton

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12128

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      A large-scale removal experiment in the flooding pampa, Argentina, shows that the impact of losing a functional group on the magnitude of invasion largely reflects its relative contribution to community biomass (the ‘mass ratio’ hypothesis). Identity attributes other than biomass may enhance the effect that losing the dominant native functional group has on the spread of established exotic species.

  3. Palaeoecology and land-use history

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Linking abundances of the dung fungus Sporormiella to the density of bison: implications for assessing grazing by megaherbivores in palaeorecords (pages 1125–1136)

      Jacquelyn L. Gill, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Adam M. Skibbe, Simon Goring, Chad R. Zirbel and John W. Williams

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12130

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      This study refines the use of Sporormiella as a proxy for local megaherbivore presence, especially in grassland systems. Multiproxy Sporormiella and pollen analyses may help elucidate the past drivers of grassland dynamics, including the possible role of bison in mediating grass-forb interactions during the variable moisture regimes of the last 12 000 years.

    2. Pollen assemblage richness does not reflect regional plant species richness: a cautionary tale (pages 1137–1145)

      Simon Goring, Terri Lacourse, Marlow G. Pellatt and Rolf W. Mathewes

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12135

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      Palynological richness in itself cannot be considered a universally reliable proxy for inferring plant richness, however, broad spatial and temporal patterns of change in richness have been reported in the literature. Our findings suggest that more work is needed to understand previously reported patterns of pollen assemblage richness through time and in space. We suggest the use of functional diversity or phylogenetically-based analysis may help link pollen richness to plant community richness.

  4. Plant-herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Changes in sex ratios of a dioecious grass with grazing intensity: the interplay between gender traits, neighbour interactions and spatial patterns (pages 1146–1157)

      Pamela Graff, Florencia Rositano and Martin R. Aguiar

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12114

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      Our results show that a drift from female- to male-bias with increasing domestic grazing intensity is far from being predicted solely by gender dimorphism in traits. Growth-defence trade-off determines competitive ability of sexes which in turn controls spatial distribution of genders within the community. The greater distance of females from unpalatable competitors was the determinant of female-biased consumption by domestic herbivores despite their larger investment in anti-herbivore compounds.

    2. Greener pastures? High-density feeding aggregations of green turtles precipitate species shifts in seagrass meadows (pages 1158–1168)

      Nachiket Kelkar, Rohan Arthur, Núria Marbà and Teresa Alcoverro

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12122

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      Taken together, our results show that high-impact turtle herbivory changes seagrass composition, precipitating dominance shifts in grazed meadows by mediating direct and apparent competition. Given the crucial role of megaherbivores in seagrass meadow functioning, our results suggest that past meadows may have had natural functional limits to megaherbivore densities that they could sustainably support.

    3. Importance of local vs. geographic variation in salt marsh plant quality for arthropod herbivore communities (pages 1169–1182)

      Laurie B. Marczak, Kazimierz Więski, Robert F. Denno and Steven C. Pennings

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12137

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      We suggest that a first-order understanding of variation across large latitudinal ranges in the Spartina alterniflora arthropod food web must begin with local variation in plant quality, which provides strong bottom-up forcing to herbivore populations. A second-order understanding of the arthropod food web should consider the role of predation in controlling herbivores feeding on low-quality plants. Finally, while latitudinal variation in plant quality probably explains some variation in herbivore densities, it is probably more of a response to herbivore pressure than a driver of herbivore dynamics. Although extrapolating from local to geographic scales presents multiple challenges, it is an essential task in order for us to develop an understanding that is general rather than site-specific.

  5. Plant-climate interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Fine root biomass and dynamics in beech forests across a precipitation gradient – is optimal resource partitioning theory applicable to water-limited mature trees? (pages 1183–1200)

      Dietrich Hertel, Tanja Strecker, Hilmar Müller-Haubold and Christoph Leuschner

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12124

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      Supporting optimal partitioning theory, mature Fagus sylvatica trees showed a remarkable allocational plasticity in response to significant precipitation reduction with a large increase in fine root biomass and production, but only weak modifications in root morphology. More severe summer droughts in a future warmer climate may substantially alter the above-/below-ground carbon partitioning of this species and the forest carbon cycle.

    2. Microclimate in forests with varying leaf area index and soil moisture: potential implications for seedling establishment in a changing climate (pages 1201–1213)

      Georg von Arx, Elisabeth Graf Pannatier, Anne Thimonier and Martine Rebetez

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12121

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      Our results suggest a threshold canopy density, which is probably linked to site-specific water availability, below which the moderating capacity of forest ecosystems switches from supportive to unsupportive for seedling establishment. Under supportive moderating capacity we understand a stronger mitigation during physiologically most demanding conditions for plant growth. Such a threshold canopy density sheds new light on forest resilience to climate change. Climate change may alter forest canopy density in a way that precludes successful establishment of some tree species and ultimately changes forest ecosystem structure and functioning.

  6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Scale-dependent relationships between tree species richness and ecosystem function in forests (pages 1214–1224)

      Ryan A. Chisholm, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Kassim Abdul Rahman, Daniel P. Bebber, Yue Bin, Stephanie A. Bohlman, Norman A. Bourg, Joshua Brinks, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Honglin Cao, Min Cao, Dairon Cárdenas, Li-Wan Chang, Jyh-Min Chiang, George Chuyong, Richard Condit, Handanakere S. Dattaraja, Stuart Davies, Alvaro Duque, Christine Fletcher, Nimal Gunatilleke, Savitri Gunatilleke, Zhanqing Hao, Rhett D. Harrison, Robert Howe, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Stephen P. Hubbell, Akira Itoh, David Kenfack, Somboon Kiratiprayoon, Andrew J. Larson, Juyu Lian, Dunmei Lin, Haifeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Keping Ma, Yadvinder Malhi, Sean McMahon, William McShea, Madhava Meegaskumbura, Salim Mohd. Razman, Michael D. Morecroft, Christopher J. Nytch, Alexandre Oliveira, Geoffrey G. Parker, Sandeep Pulla, Ruwan Punchi-Manage, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Weiguo Sang, Jon Schurman, Sheng-Hsin Su, Raman Sukumar, I-Fang Sun, Hebbalalu S. Suresh, Sylvester Tan, Duncan Thomas, Sean Thomas, Jill Thompson, Renato Valencia, Amy Wolf, Sandra Yap, Wanhui Ye, Zuoqiang Yuan and Jess K. Zimmerman

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12132

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      Our analysis of 25 forests across the world shows that the relationship of tree species richness to biomass (AGB) and productivity (CWP) changes qualitatively from positive at small spatial grains typical of forest surveys (0.04 ha) to mixed at slightly larger spatial grains (0.25 and 1 ha). This needs to be recognised in forest conservation policy and management.

    2. The response of plant diversity to grazing varies along an elevational gradient (pages 1225–1236)

      James D. M. Speed, Gunnar Austrheim and Atle Mysterud

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12133

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      This study shows that the effect of grazing on plant diversity varies with elevation, and grazing herbivores can thus directly affect elevational patterns of plant diversity. Grazing can buffer changes in plant communities and species richness, even in the face of other environmental drivers such as climatic warming.

    3. Evidence for scale- and disturbance-dependent trait assembly patterns in dry semi-natural grasslands (pages 1237–1244)

      Francesco de Bello, Marie Vandewalle, Triin Reitalu, Jan Lepš, Honor C. Prentice, Sandra Lavorel and Martin T. Sykes

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12139

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      This study shows that multiple trait-based assembly processes operate simultaneously in species-rich communities, across spatial scales and disturbance regimes. The results support earlier theoretical predictions that divergence between coexisting species may be an important driver of community assembly, particularly at finer spatial scales, where species compete for the same local resources. In contrast, environmental filtering is expected at broader spatial scales, where species growing in particular environmental conditions share traits that are adaptive under those conditions. Within given habitat types, dispersal limitation may, however, override environmental filtering at increasing spatial scales of observation.

  7. Dispersal

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Baker's law and the island syndromes in bryophytes (pages 1245–1255)

      Jairo Patiño, Irene Bisang, Lars Hedenäs, Gerard Dirkse, Ágúst H. Bjarnason, Claudine Ah-Peng and Alain Vanderpoorten

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12136

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      Reproductive and dispersal traits significantly differ between continental and oceanic island bryophyte floras, evidencing the evolution of island syndromes. Although the proportion of bisexual species is higher on islands than on continents, in agreement with Baker's law, significant shifts towards increased production of asexual specialized diaspores involved in short-distance dispersal, and decrease in the production of spores involved in long-distance dispersal, support the notion that long-distance dispersal capacity by wind decreases on islands.

    2. Long-term seed survival and dispersal dynamics in a rodent-dispersed tree: testing the predator satiation hypothesis and the predator dispersal hypothesis (pages 1256–1264)

      Zhishu Xiao, Zhibin Zhang and Charles J. Krebs

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12113

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      By integrating seed abundance and animal abundance, our long-term study from oil tea has shown that greater seed production was associated with improvement in pre-dispersal seed survival, but a reduction in seed dispersal. This indicates that, compared with the predator dispersal hypothesis, the predator satiation hypothesis provides a better mechanism predicting seed dispersal and seed survival in animal-dispersed plants.

  8. Plant development and life-history traits

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. The lanky and the corky: fire-escape strategies in savanna woody species (pages 1265–1272)

      Vinícius de L. Dantas and Juli G. Pausas

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12118

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      In savanna ecosystems there are two main strategies to scape fire. The lanky strategy (early alocation to height) is more associated with heavily-browsed and fuel-controlled savannas, while the corky strategy (early allocation to a thick bark) is associated with lightly-browsed savannas that experience more intense fires. Because the relative role of disturbances varies across the globe, we suggest that the height-bark-diameter scheme is a powerful framework for understanding the ecology of many savannas.

    2. The time distribution of reproductive value measures the pace of life (pages 1273–1280)

      Cyril Mbeau-Ache and Miguel Franco

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12131

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      A negative power relationship between the pace and duration of life as measured on the time distribution of reproductive value for 207 plant species worldwide provides support to the idea that the pace of life determines its duration and, consequently, to the idea that senescence is the unavoidable consequence of the devaluation of the reproductive value currency.

  9. Plant population and community dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Parental environments and interactions with conspecifics alter salinity tolerance of offspring in the annual Medicago truncatula (pages 1281–1287)

      Brenna M. Castro, Ken S. Moriuchi, Maren L. Friesen, Mounawer Badri, Sergey V. Nuzhdin, Sharon Y. Strauss, Douglas R. Cook and Eric von Wettberg

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12125

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      Adaptation to stressful environments allows tolerant genotypes to persist in these environments. Less appreciated is that stress-sensitive genotypes lacking such adaptations may persist in stressful environments via positive interactions with other individuals. Thus, positive interactions between individuals may explain the persistence of stress-sensitive genotypes within a population adapted to stressful environments.

    2. Restoration recovers population structure and landscape genetic connectivity in a dispersal-limited ecosystem (pages 1288–1297)

      Laura K. Reynolds, Michelle Waycott and Karen J. McGlathery

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12116

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      We demonstrate that metapopulations are important to recovery of seagrass ecosystems that have experienced catastrophic loss over large spatial scales. However, natural recovery is slow and inefficient at recovering genetic diversity when recruitment barriers exist. Seed-based restoration rapidly facilitates the recovery of populations to higher genetic diversity, and when seed sources are chosen carefully protects regional genetic structure.

  10. Plant-plant interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Root and shoot competition: a meta-analysis (pages 1298–1312)

      Lars Pødenphant Kiær, Anne Nygaard Weisbach and Jacob Weiner

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12129

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      By review of the published literature it is shown that effects of root and shoot competition may generally be considered additive under a range of circumstances. Root competition was generally stronger than shoot competition, particularly for smaller competitors, at lower nutrient levels, and for crops competing with wild plants. Competition effects differed considerably across various experimental conditions.

    2. Plants are least suppressed by their frequent neighbours: the relationship between competitive ability and spatial aggregation patterns (pages 1313–1321)

      Marina Semchenko, Maria Abakumova, Anu Lepik and Kristjan Zobel

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12127

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      Previous studies have concluded that spatial aggregation of conspecifics should benefit weak competitors and put stronger competitors at a disadvantage, thus promoting plant species coexistence. Here we show that traits determining spatial patterns and competitive ability may be co-evolved in plants, resulting in greater dispersal in stronger competitors and reduced competitive ability in spatially aggregated species.

  11. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Evidence that acidification-induced declines in plant diversity and productivity are mediated by changes in below-ground communities and soil properties in a semi-arid steppe (pages 1322–1334)

      Dima Chen, Zhichun Lan, Xue Bai, James B. Grace and Yongfei Bai

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12119

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      Our results suggest that the below-ground microbial and nematode communities are more sensitive to soil acidification than the plant communities are, and further that soil acidification-induced changes in plants are mediated by changes in below-ground communities and soil nutrients. These findings improve our understanding of the links between below- and above-ground communities in the Inner Mongolia grassland, especially in the context of anthropogenic acid enrichment.

    2. The distance decay of similarity in communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi in different ecosystems and scales (pages 1335–1344)

      Mohammad Bahram, Urmas Kõljalg, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Abdala G. Diédhiou, Rasmus Kjøller, Sergei Põlme, Martin Ryberg, Vilmar Veldre and Leho Tedersoo

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12120

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      Spatial processes play a stronger role and over a greater scale in structuring local communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi than previously anticipated, particularly in ecosystems with greater vegetation age and closer to the equator. Greater rate of distance decay occurs in ecosystems with lower host density that may stem from increasing dispersal and establishment limitation. The relatively strong latitude effect on distance decay of lineage-level community similarity suggests that climate affects large-scale spatial processes and may cause phylogenetic clustering of ectomycorrhizal fungi at the global scale.

  12. Reproductive ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Sex allocation, pollen limitation and masting in whitebark pine (pages 1345–1352)

      Joshua M. Rapp, Eliot J. B. McIntire and Elizabeth E. Crone

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12115

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      Improved pollination is a possible driver of masting. For the masting species Pinus albicaulis in Montana, USA trees increased investment in both male and female function in mast years, as expected from the pollen coupling hypothesis, but not sex allocation theory. This led to better pollination, greater seed cone production, and improved reproductive synchrony among individual trees.

  13. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. Forum
    3. Invasion ecology
    4. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    5. Plant-herbivore interactions
    6. Plant-climate interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Dispersal
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Plant population and community dynamics
    11. Plant-plant interactions
    12. Plant-soil (below-ground) interactions
    13. Reproductive ecology
    14. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biological Flora of the British Isles: Pulmonaria officinalis (pages 1353–1368)

      Sofie Meeus, Rein Brys, Olivier Honnay and Hans Jacquemyn

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12150

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      Pulmonaria officinalis is a perennial forest herb species that became naturalized in Britain, and is typically found in the understory of broadleaved, mixed, open woods rich in hornbeam, beech and oak; it is characterized by a distylous breeding system and flowers are mainly pollinated by long-tongued solitary bees and bumble bees. Although native to the European mainland, this species has significantly expanded its distribution in the British Isles since the 18th century.

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