Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 102 Issue 3

May 2014

Volume 102, Issue 3

Pages 555–822

  1. Ecophysiology

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. No signs of meristem senescence in old Scots pine (pages 555–565)

      Maurizio Mencuccini, Marta Oñate, Josep Peñuelas, Laura Rico and Sergi Munné-Bosch

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12219

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We conclude that changes in DNA methylation can occur in old trees. The lack of apparent physiological deterioration in the grafted plants suggests that meristem senescence is not the main factor triggering whole-plant ageing in Scots pine.

  2. Plant–herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Restoration of a megaherbivore: landscape-level impacts of white rhinoceros in Kruger National Park, South Africa (pages 566–575)

      Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt and Mariska te Beest

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12218

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We provide empirical evidence that white rhinoceros may have started to change the structure and composition of Kruger National Park's savanna grasslands. It remains to be tested if these changes lead to other ecological cascading effects. Our results highlight that the current rhino poaching crisis may not only affect the species, but also threaten the potential key role of this megaherbivore as a driver of savanna functioning.

    2. Variability in seed cone production and functional response of seed predators to seed cone availability: support for the predator satiation hypothesis (pages 576–583)

      Yan B. Linhart, Xoaquín Moreira, Marc A. Snyder and Kailen A. Mooney

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12231

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pinus ponderosa escapes its seed predators in time by reproducing at irregular intervals (masting). In years when many cones are available, trees suffer markedly lower rates of seed predator attack than years of low production: white dots = non-mast years, grey dots = intermediate years, black dots = mast years. These data provide evidence that mast seeding in this species evolved in response to natural selection from insect seed predators.

    3. Experimental test of plant defence evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures (pages 584–594)

      Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley and Marc T. J. Johnson

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12227

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our study provides an experimental test of the evolutionary effects of an ecologically important herbivore. We found evidence for plant defence evolution following >20 years of rabbit exclusion; however, the evidence was only strong in one species for multiple traits, weak in all three grass species for avoidance and absent in an herb species. This suggests that the evolutionary effects of an ecologically important herbivore on plants will be variable and difficult to predict in nature.

    4. Is there a ‘browse trap’? Dynamics of herbivore impacts on trees and grasses in an African savanna (pages 595–602)

      Ann Carla Staver and William J. Bond

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12230

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This work provides the first experimental evidence that release from browsing trumps grazer–grass–fire interactions to result in increases in tree size that persist even after browser reintroduction. Escape from the ‘browse trap’ may be incremental and not strictly episodic, but, over longer time-scales, reductions in browsing pressure may lead to tree establishment events in savanna that persist even during periods of intense browsing. Explicitly considering the temporal demographic effects of browsing will be the key for a much-needed evaluation of the potential global extent of herbivore impacts in savanna.

  3. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Disentangling the mechanisms underlying functional differences among decomposer communities (pages 603–609)

      Ashley D. Keiser, David A. Keiser, Michael S. Strickland and Mark A. Bradford

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12220

    2. Pinus ponderosa alters nitrogen dynamics and diminishes the climate footprint in natural ecosystems of Patagonia (pages 610–621)

      Laura J. T. Hess and Amy T. Austin

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12228

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Understanding climate effects on plant–soil interactions remains challenging because floristic composition changes concurrently with rainfall in natural ecosystems. We demonstrate here, by taking advantage of widely planted 35-year-old pine plantations in Patagonia, that afforestation eliminates much of the variation in N dynamics observed in natural vegetation with changes in precipitation. Moreover, altering natural species composition alone is sufficient to cause large impacts on N cycling independently of rainfall.

    3. Soil-mediated effects of invasive ungulates on native tree seedlings (pages 622–631)

      Paul Kardol, Ian A. Dickie, Mark G. St. John, Sean W. Husheer, Karen I. Bonner, Peter J. Bellingham and David A. Wardle

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12234

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Invasive herbivores may potentially impact on plant performance and community structure not only directly but also indirectly through influencing soil abiotic and biotic properties. We show that shifts in plant–soil interactions and feedbacks represent important but understudied pathways by which invasive ungulates can have wide-ranging impacts on forest ecosystems.

  4. Plant development and life-history traits

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Traits of plant communities in fragmented forests: the relative influence of habitat spatial configuration and local abiotic conditions (pages 632–640)

      Adam Kimberley, G. Alan Blackburn, J. Duncan Whyatt and Simon M. Smart

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In addition to the effects of greater light availability and competition in small patches and at forest edges, aspects of habitat configuration such as patch size and isolation are themselves important factors limiting the occurrence of forest specialist species.

    2. Linking functional traits and demographic rates in a subtropical tree community: the importance of size dependency (pages 641–650)

      Yoshiko Iida, Takashi S. Kohyama, Nathan G. Swenson, Sheng-Hsin Su, Chien-Teh Chen, Jyh-Min Chiang and I-Fang Sun

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12221

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An important goal in plant community ecology is to understand how species traits determine demographic performance. Several functional traits have been shown to correlate with demography, but less is known about their size dependency. This paper investigates the importance of size dependency in trait–demography relationships across 43 species in a Taiwanese rain forest.

  5. Plant population and community dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Genotypic diversity and trait variance interact to affect marsh plant performance (pages 651–658)

      A. Randall Hughes

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12244

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Genotypic and trait diversity of the foundation species Spartina alterniflora interactively influenced above- and below-ground responses in a 1-year field experiment (shown here immediately after planting). The influence of intraspecific trait diversity, particularly in genotypic monoculture, highlights the importance of functional variation for ecological effects of genetic diversity and suggests that readily measured trait variance may serve as a valuable predictor of plant performance.

    2. Secondary dispersal by ants promotes forest regeneration after deforestation (pages 659–666)

      Silvia C. Gallegos, Isabell Hensen and Matthias Schleuning

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In the absence of secondary dispersal, seed germination and seedling recruitment were very low in degraded habitats. Secondary seed dispersal by ants substantially increased natural regeneration in the deforested habitats. Our experiments thus demonstrate that secondary dispersal is a crucial and overlooked process that can aid the regeneration of deforested habitats in the tropics.

    3. Interactions among herbivory, climate, topography and plant age shape riparian willow dynamics in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA (pages 667–677)

      Kristin N. Marshall, David J. Cooper and N. Thompson Hobbs

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12225

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We show that the effects of modification of a food web cannot be predicted by studying trophic dynamics in isolation. No single driver explained patterns of willow establishment and growth over the past three decades in Yellowstone. Instead, interactions among trophic forces, interannual climate variability and landscape topography together shaped how the ecosystem responded to perturbations. Top-down effects of ungulates on riparian woody vegetation must be considered in the context of plant age, and climate and landscape heterogeneity.

    4. A model for non-equilibrium metapopulation dynamics utilizing data on species occupancy, patch ages and landscape history (pages 678–689)

      Alejandro Ruete, Örjan Fritz and Tord Snäll

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12229

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The distribution pattern of many species living in highly fragmented landscapes reflects the past rather than the current landscape structure (see map of the study area). The presented approach uses data on only species occurrence (0 or 1), patch age (blue arrow) and landscape history to estimate the species colonization rate and dispersal kernel. The model estimates the rate of change in the occurrence pattern by estimating the most likely time of colonization for years where nothing is known about the occupancy state of the focal patch (NA). * The stand is not yet suitable for the focal species.

    5. Climate drivers, host identity and fungal endophyte infection determine virus prevalence in a grassland ecosystem (pages 690–699)

      Megan A. Rúa, Rebecca L. McCulley and Charles E. Mitchell

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12238

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our investigation experimentally demonstrates strong combined impacts of biotic and abiotic factors on disease dynamics in a grassland system. Impacts of climate change on virus prevalence in grasslands may depend on the responses of aphid vectors and the presence of endophytic fungal symbionts.

    6. Critical transitions in disturbance-driven ecosystems: identifying Windows of Opportunity for recovery (pages 700–708)

      Thorsten Balke, Peter M. J. Herman and Tjeerd J. Bouma

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12241

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate how time-series analysis of external forcing is able to identify potential events for sudden vegetation recovery in biogeomorphic ecosystems. These so called ‘Windows of Opportunity’ (WoO) occur whenever external forcing is reduced for a sufficient amount of time in which plants can root and gain stability against average forcing. The WoO concept offers an important tool towards predicting transitions in disturbance-driven ecosystems and may have broader implications for understanding critical transitions in other ecosystems with stochastic external forcing.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Corrigendum

      Vol. 102, Issue 5, 1356, Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014

  6. Dispersal

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Defoliation effects on seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a tropical rain forest understorey palm (pages 709–720)

      Jeffrey van Lent, Juan C. Hernández-Barrios, Niels P. R. Anten and Miguel Martínez-Ramos

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12216

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chronic and intense defoliation (right palm drawing) affects negatively seed production in the understorey palm Chamaedorea ernesti-augustii. Seed dispersal by birds compensates seedling recruitment in sterile populations. Persistence of seed sources is critical for the demographic viability and genetic variability of populations under natural and human induced defoliation regimes.

    2. Release thresholds for moss spores: the importance of turbulence and sporophyte length (pages 721–729)

      Victor Johansson, Niklas Lönnell, Sebastian Sundberg and Kristoffer Hylander

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12245

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We suggest that vibration of moss sporophytes is an important mechanism to regulate spore release and that turbulence and sporophyte length regulate the onset of sporophyte vibration. Spore release thresholds affect dispersal distances and have implications for our understanding and predictions of species distribution patterns, population dynamics and persistence. The mechanisms of this phase of the dispersal process are also important to explore for other species, as there may be a substantial variation depending on the species' different traits.

  7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Ocean acidification outweighs nutrient effects in structuring seagrass epiphyte communities (pages 730–737)

      Justin E. Campbell and James W. Fourqurean

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Developing a framework for assessing interactions between multiple anthropogenic stressors remains an important goal in environmental research. In coastal ecosystems, the relative effects of global climate change (e.g. CO2 concentrations) and localized stressors (e.g. eutrophication), in combination, have received limited attention. Our in situ experiment reveals that global stressors such as ocean acidification (OA) may take precedence over local eutrophication in altering the community structure of seagrass epiphytes. Given that nutrient-driven algal overgrowth is commonly cited as a widespread cause of seagrass decline, our findings highlight that alternate climate change forces, such as OA, may exert proximate control over epiphyte community structure.

    2. Multi-century reconstruction of fire activity in Northern European boreal forest suggests differences in regional fire regimes and their sensitivity to climate (pages 738–748)

      Igor Drobyshev, Anders Granström, Hans W. Linderholm, Erik Hellberg, Yves Bergeron and Mats Niklasson

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12235

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Historical patterns of the occurrence of large fire years (LFY) in Scandinavia point towards the presence of two well-defined zones with characteristic fire activity, with the geographical division at approximately 60° N. The northern and mid-boreal forests, although exhibiting lower LFY frequencies, appeared to be more sensitive to past summer climate, as compared to the southern boreal forests. This would imply that fire regimes across Scandinavia may show an asynchronous response to future climate changes.

    3. Evergreen shrubs dominate responses to experimental summer warming and fertilization in Canadian mesic low arctic tundra (pages 749–766)

      Tara J. Zamin, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte and Paul Grogan

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12237

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Climate change in arctic tundra is projected to increase soil fertility. Our results strongly suggest that the trajectory of mesic tundra vegetation change with warming depends critically on the rate of increase in soil fertility. The relatively large greenhouse-induced biomass increase in evergreen compared to deciduous shrubs suggests that carbon balance and albedo feedbacks to warming will be restricted in mesic tundra ecosystems, at least in their early responses to climate change.

    4. Incorporating dominant species as proxies for biotic interactions strengthens plant community models (pages 767–775)

      Peter C. le Roux, Loïc Pellissier, Mary S. Wisz and Miska Luoto

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12239

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate the strong role of dominant species in shaping multiple plant community attributes, and thus the need to explicitly include interspecific interactions to achieve robust predictions of assemblage properties. Incorporating information on biotic interactions strengthens our capacity not only to predict the richness and composition of communities, but also how their structure and function will be modified in the face of global change.

    5. A complex network of interactions controls coexistence and relative abundances in Patagonian grass-shrub steppes (pages 776–788)

      Pablo A. Cipriotti, Martín R. Aguiar, Thorsten Wiegand and José M. Paruelo

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12246

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A complex network of mechanisms controls growth-form coexistence and relative abundances in the Patagonian grass-shrub steppe where both, demographic bottlenecks and species interactions across life forms, species and life stages were important. The partial vertical root overlap between grasses and shrubs is necessary to produce a diversity of interactions and that neither stronger (total overlap) nor weaker competition (no overlap) between functional types was capable of producing the field patterns.

  8. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Eryngium maritimum (pages 789–821)

      Maike Isermann and Paul Rooney

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12243

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Eryngium maritimum (Sea Holly) is a perennial plant, with a deep taproot and spiny, leathery leaves, that is widely distributed in open habitats on coastal dunes and sand or shingle beaches. It occurs on all on European coasts, up to c. 60° N., in different biogeographical species groups. A poor competitor, it is threatened by habitat loss and land-use changes in many parts of Europe.

  9. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Ecophysiology
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    5. Plant development and life-history traits
    6. Plant population and community dynamics
    7. Dispersal
    8. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    9. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum (page 822)

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12242

      This article corrects:

      Waiting for Gajah: an elephant mutualist's contingency plan for an endangered megafaunal disperser

      Vol. 101, Issue 6, 1379–1388, Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION