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Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Journal of Ecology

January 2015

Volume 103, Issue 1

Pages 1–280

  1. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
    1. Special Feature – Editorial

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      Forest resilience, tipping points and global change processes (pages 1–4)

      Christopher P.O. Reyer, Anja Rammig, Niels Brouwers and Fanny Langerwisch

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12342

    2. Special Feature – Essay Review

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      Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges (pages 5–15)

      Christopher P. O. Reyer, Niels Brouwers, Anja Rammig, Barry W. Brook, Jackie Epila, Robert F. Grant, Milena Holmgren, Fanny Langerwisch, Sebastian Leuzinger, Wolfgang Lucht, Belinda Medlyn, Marion Pfeifer, Jörg Steinkamp, Mark C. Vanderwel, Hans Verbeeck and Dora M. Villela

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12337

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      As forests change at various scales, it is increasingly important to understand whether and how such changes lead to reduced resilience and potential tipping points. Understanding the mechanisms underlying forest resilience and tipping points would help in assessing risks to ecosystems and presents opportunities for ecosystem restoration and sustainable forest management.

    3. Special Feature – Standard Papers

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      Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests (pages 16–30)

      Lydia E. S. Cole, Shonil A. Bhagwat and Katherine J. Willis

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12329

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      Image of a peatland in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, where degraded peat swamp forest (left) abuts a drained area, recently converted into an oil palm plantation (mature plantings shown in the background); pioneer species are regenerating in the foreground, amidst felled forest trees, ferns and young oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) (Image taken by L.E.S.Cole.). Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggests that disturbances within the last c. 500 years are of a greater magnitude and anthropogenic in origin and are causing a decline in the peat swamp forest communities, challenging the ecosystem's persistence.

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      Is drought-induced forest dieback globally increasing? (pages 31–43)

      Jörg Steinkamp and Thomas Hickler

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12335

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      Our results indeed suggest that dry forests have been experiencing increasing drought-induced mortality. However, this does not apply to forests in general and the spatial variability has been large. The poor correspondence between the simulated and reported mortality events indicates that models like LPJ-GUESS driven by standard climatologies, and soil input data do not represent drought-induced mortality well. But the poor detection of the reported drought events in our climate indices also suggests that drought stress might not be the main driver of all the reported drought-mortality events.

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      To die or not to die: early warnings of tree dieback in response to a severe drought (pages 44–57)

      J. Julio Camarero, Antonio Gazol, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Jonàs Oliva and Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12295

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      Early warning signals of drought-triggered mortality seem to be species specific and reflect how different tree species cope with drought stress. Highly correlated declining growth patterns during drought can serve as a signal in silver fir, whereas changes in the content of sapwood soluble sugars are suitable vigour proxies for Scots and Aleppo pines. Longer growth and defoliation series, additional vigour parameters and multi-species comparisons are required to understand and predict drought-induced tree death.

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      Positive shrub–tree interactions facilitate woody encroachment in boreal peatlands (pages 58–66)

      Milena Holmgren, Ching-Yen Lin, Julian E. Murillo, Annelies Nieuwenhuis, Joyce Penninkhof, Natasja Sanders, Thomas van Bart, Huib van Veen, Harri Vasander, Marlies E. Vollebregt and Juul Limpens

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12331

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      Our results suggest that shrubs facilitate tree colonization of boreal peatbogs which further increases shrub growth. These facilitative effects seem to be stronger under warmer conditions (white bars) suggesting that a higher frequency of warmer and dry summers may lead to stronger positive interactions between shrubs and trees that could eventually facilitate a shift from moss- to tree-dominated systems.

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      Loss of secondary-forest resilience by land-use intensification in the Amazon (pages 67–77)

      Catarina C. Jakovac, Marielos Peña-Claros, Thomas W. Kuyper and Frans Bongers

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12298

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      Swidden cultivation supports people's livelihoods and transforms landscapes in the tropics. We evaluated how the intensification of this system affects secondary-forest resilience in the Amazon. Secondary-forest resilience decreased with land-use intensification, mainly mediated by the effect of management intensity upon regeneration strategies. Under an intensification scenario, the adaptation of management practices is needed to guarantee the resilience of swidden cultivation.

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      Long-term data suggest jarrah-forest establishment at restored mine sites is resistant to climate variability (pages 78–89)

      Rachel J. Standish, Matthew I. Daws, Aaron D. Gove, Raphael K. Didham, Andrew H. Grigg, John M. Koch and Richard J. Hobbs

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12301

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      Dry-region forests are predicted to decline in response to projected increases in the frequency and severity of drought. We used a 19-year record of jarrah forest restoration after bauxite mining in south-western Australia to determine the impacts of climate variability on seedling establishment. These data suggested seedling establishment was resistant to climate variability, perhaps because of high rainfall reliability.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
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      Journal of Ecology News (pages 90–92)

      David J. Gibson, Amy T. Austin, Richard D. Bardgett, Mark Rees, Andrea Baier and Lauren Sandhu

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12352

  3. Essay review

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
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      Hydrological niches in terrestrial plant communities: a review (pages 93–108)

      Jonathan Silvertown, Yoseph Araya and David Gowing

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12332

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      In a review of the literature on hydrological niches, we find that plants segregate on soil-moisture gradients and/or partition water resources spatially or temporally in a wide range of environments from arid to wet. We propose that this niche segregation arises from three trade-offs imposed by edaphic, structural and biophysical constraints.

  4. Invasion ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
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      Impact of exotic insect herbivores on native tritrophic interactions: a case study of the African cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis and insects associated with the field mustard Brassica rapa (pages 109–117)

      Yosra Chabaane, Diane Laplanche, Ted C. J. Turlings and Gaylord A. Desurmont

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12304

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      Our study illustrates that exotic herbivores can impact native tritrophic interactions associated with Brassica rapa, even if they cannot be used as prey by native natural enemies. The mechanisms behind such effects, in particular chemical interference with foraging cues via changes in herbivore-induced plant volatiles, have the potential to be quite general, and their long-term effects on native communities should not be underestimated.

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      Novel interactions between non-native mammals and fungi facilitate establishment of invasive pines (pages 121–129)

      Jamie R. Wood, Ian A. Dickie, Holly V. Moeller, Duane A. Peltzer, Karen I. Bonner, Gaye Rattray and Janet M. Wilmshurst

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12345

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      Our results show that introduced mammals from Australia and Europe facilitate the co-invasion of invasive North American trees and northern hemisphere fungi in New Zealand, while we find no evidence that introduced mammals benefit native trees or fungi. This novel tri-partite ‘invasional meltdown’, comprising taxa from three kingdoms and three continents, highlights unforeseen consequences of global biotic homogenisation.

  5. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
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      Partner diversity and identity impacts on plant productivity in Acacia–rhizobial interactions (pages 130–142)

      Luke G. Barrett, James D. Bever, Andrew Bissett and Peter H. Thrall

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12336

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      Overall, our data show that multiple rhizobia interacting with a single host species creates opportunities for emergent or higher-order effects that extend beyond those that could be simply predicted based upon outcomes of pairwise interactions and that increased mutualist diversity does not necessarily translate into positive effects on plant growth.

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      Alien and native plant species play different roles in plant community structure (pages 143–152)

      Maud Bernard-Verdier and Philip E. Hulme

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12341

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      Our analyses reveal that widespread alien and native species play different roles in the plant communities in which they co-occur. Separately analysing the relationship with species abundance for alien and native components of richness can help distinguish between situations where aliens may be acting as the primary drivers in plant community changes or simply passengers. This is an essential first step in designing further experimental studies to determine the underlying ecological processes and potential ecosystem impacts of alien species.

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      Earthworm invasion, white-tailed deer and seedling establishment in deciduous forests of north-eastern North America (pages 153–164)

      Annise Dobson and Bernd Blossey

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12350

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      Invasive earthworms negatively affected seedling survival of many understorey plants, including species previously thought to benefit from earthworm associations. This effect was a function of earthworm biomass, a surrogate for earthworm activity. We expect deer herbivory to increase in importance, including indirect effects, as seedlings grow into browse height over the next years. Investigations of co-occurring stressors can result in ‘ecological surprises’ including previously overlooked non-consumptive effects or effects on other trophic levels.

  6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
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      Do pathogens limit the distributions of tropical trees across a rainfall gradient? (pages 165–174)

      Erin R. Spear, Phyllis D. Coley and Thomas A. Kursar

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12339

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      A rainfall gradient across the Isthmus of Panama correlates with changes in tree species composition. We observed an elevated risk of pathogen-caused damage and mortality for seedlings in the wetter forests and a greater impact to host fitness from pathogen attack for seedlings of tree species common in the drier forests. These results suggest that pathogens contribute to the exclusion of dry-forest tree species from the wetter forests and highlight a potentially widespread mechanism by which pathogens may enhance regional forest diversity. Photo caption: A healthy, Castilla elastica seedling (left of center) and a C. elastica seedling succumbing to pathogen-caused mortality (right of center) in Parque Natural Metropolitano, Panama. Photo credit: E.R.S.

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      Disentangling dispersal from phylogeny in the colonization capacity of forest understorey plants (pages 175–183)

      Lander Baeten, T. Jonathan Davies, Kris Verheyen, Hans Van Calster and Mark Vellend

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12333

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      Given the phylogenetic signal in plant colonization capacity, a multitude of conserved species characteristics may explain community assembly in forests. Earlier trait-based syntheses strongly emphasised dispersal, but the factors limiting establishment and persistence of forest herbs in post-agricultural forests may be more nuanced than generally appreciated.

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      Broad-scale variation of fungal-endophyte incidence in temperate grasses (pages 184–190)

      María Semmartin, Marina Omacini, Pedro E. Gundel and Ignacio M. Hernández-Agramonte

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12343

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The strength of many interactions between plants and other organisms changes across regional gradients. We surveyed the incidence of the symbiosis between fungal endophytes and wild grass populations world-wide. Incidence increased with primary production and decreased with latitude. As herbivory, temperature and water availability relate to primary production they may be key drivers of the symbiosis success.

  7. Plant population and community dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
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      Does functional trait diversity predict above-ground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses (pages 191–201)

      Bryan Finegan, Marielos Peña-Claros, Alexandre de Oliveira, Nataly Ascarrunz, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Geovana Carreño-Rocabado, Fernando Casanoves, Sandra Díaz, Paul Eguiguren Velepucha, Fernando Fernandez, Juan Carlos Licona, Leda Lorenzo, Beatriz Salgado Negret, Marcel Vaz and Lourens Poorter

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12346

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We found no support for the niche complementarity hypothesis and support for the green soup hypothesis only for biomass increments of recruits. We have strong support for the biomass ratio hypothesis. CWMHmax is a strong driver of ecosystem biomass and carbon storage and CWM SLA, and other CWM leaf traits are especially important for biomass increments and carbon sequestration.

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      The compadre Plant Matrix Database: an open online repository for plant demography (pages 202–218)

      Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Owen R. Jones, C. Ruth Archer, Yvonne M. Buckley, Judy Che-Castaldo, Hal Caswell, David Hodgson, Alexander Scheuerlein, Dalia A. Conde, Erik Brinks, Hendrik de Buhr, Claudia Farack, Fränce Gottschalk, Alexander Hartmann, Anne Henning, Gabriel Hoppe, Gesa Römer, Jens Runge, Tara Ruoff, Julia Wille, Stefan Zeh, Raziel Davison, Dirk Vieregg, Annette Baudisch, Res Altwegg, Fernando Colchero, Ming Dong, Hans de Kroon, Jean-Dominique Lebreton, Charlotte J. E. Metcalf, Maile M. Neel, Ingrid M. Parker, Takenori Takada, Teresa Valverde, Luis A. Vélez-Espino, Glenda M. Wardle, Miguel Franco and James W. Vaupel

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12334

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Synthesis: Large collections of data sets allow broad questions to be addressed at the global scale, for example, in genetics (genbank), functional plant ecology (try, bien, d3) and grassland community ecology (nutnet). Here, we present compadre, a similarly data-rich and ecologically relevant resource for plant demography. Open access to this information, its frequent updates and its integration with other online resources will allow researchers to address timely and important ecological and evolutionary questions.

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      Fungal symbiont effects on dune plant diversity depend on precipitation (pages 219–230)

      Jennifer A. Rudgers, Lukas Bell-Dereske, Kerri M. Crawford and Sarah M. Emery

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12338

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      We show that microbial mutualisms can have strong effects on community structure in a native ecosystem and that the amount of precipitation has the potential to alter how these keystone species interactions affect community composition. Predictions on future plant community structure, for both restored and native dunes, can be improved by accounting for the presence of fungal symbionts in the foundation plant species.

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      Episodic bamboo die-off, neighbourhood interactions and tree seedling performance in a Patagonian mixed forest (pages 231–242)

      Fernando D. Caccia, Thomas Kitzberger and Enrique J. Chaneton

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bamboo mass flowering/dieback events are thought to create rare opportunities for canopy species regeneration. We show that bamboo die-off exerted both positive and negative, species-specific effects on the likelihood of Nothofagus seedling establishment in Patagonia. Bamboo dieback altered microhabitat conditions and seedling–herbivore interactions, which coupled with canopy neighbourhood effects may drive gap-phase forest dynamics.

  8. Plant–herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      Historically browsed jewelweed populations exhibit greater tolerance to deer herbivory than historically protected populations (pages 243–249)

      Laura J. Martin, Anurag A. Agrawal and Clifford E. Kraft

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12344

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A common garden experiment demonstrates that individual orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) from populations historically browsed by deer in New York State are more able to tolerate contemporary browse than those from historically protected populations. This suggests the rapid evolution of tolerance to deer browse. Variation in tolerance traits in native plant species may allow them to persist in the face of rapid ecological change.

  9. Plant–plant interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      Plant volatiles cause direct, induced and associational resistance in common bean to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (pages 250–260)

      Elizabeth Quintana-Rodriguez, Adan T. Morales-Vargas, Jorge Molina-Torres, Rosa M. Ádame-Alvarez, Jorge A. Acosta-Gallegos and Martin Heil

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12340

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We conclude that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in the resistance of bean to fungal pathogens. They can contribute to the direct resistance in the emitter itself, and resistance phenotypes of neighbouring receiver plants can result from induced as well as associational resistance. Plant VOCs play multiple roles in the resistance of plants to microbial pathogens.

  10. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      Range expansion in asexual dandelions: selection for general-purpose genotypes? (pages 261–268)

      Carla Oplaat and Koen J. F. Verhoeven

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12347

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Asexual dandelion genotypes that are successful range expanders are characterized by robust performance across a range of different experimental environments, whereas genotypes that did not migrate far are more successful in exploiting optimal environments. This shows a change in phenotypic plasticity strategy and selection for general-purpose genotypes from core to range edge.

  11. Reproductive ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: FOREST RESILIENCE, TIPPING POINTS AND GLOBAL CHANGE PROCESSES
    3. Editorial
    4. Essay review
    5. Invasion ecology
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant–herbivore interactions
    10. Plant–plant interactions
    11. Ecological genetics and ecogenomics
    12. Reproductive ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      The consequences of demand-driven seed provisioning for sexual differences in reproductive investment in Thalictrum occidentale (Ranunculaceae) (pages 269–280)

      Takashi Y. Ida, Lawrence D. Harder and Gaku Kudo

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12330

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In contrast to the common assumption that resource availability limits annual seed production capacity by individual plants (left), this study demonstrates that iteroparous angiosperms can invest in seed production in response to the demand of developing embryos (right). Such flexibility eliminates the possibility of resource limitation and seed size-number trade-offs and promotes sexual differences in reproductive investment.

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