Journal of Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 103 Issue 4

July 2015

Volume 103, Issue 4

Pages 789–1098

  1. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Special Feature – Editorial

      Eco-evolutionary dynamics in plants: interactive processes at overlapping time-scales and their implications (pages 789–797)

      Richard P. Shefferson and Roberto Salguero-Gómez

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12432

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      Evolution can happen rapidly. Eco-evolutionary dynamics is a field that explores the ramifications of evolution and ecological processes occurring at similar timescales. We show how plant-focused research can aid this field, and how plant ecology can gain from it.

    2. Special Feature – Standard Papers

      Life history evolution under climate change and its influence on the population dynamics of a long-lived plant (pages 798–808)

      Jennifer L. Williams, Hans Jacquemyn, Brad M. Ochocki, Rein Brys and Tom E. X. Miller

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12369

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      Our results illustrate that long-lived organisms can exhibit complex demographic responses to changing climate regimes. Additionally, they highlight that long-term evolutionary responses may be in opposing directions to short-term responses to climate. Finally, they emphasize the need for demographic models to integrate ecological and evolutionary influences of climate across the life cycle.

    3. The susceptibility of Echinacea angustifolia to a specialist aphid: eco-evolutionary perspective on genotypic variation and demographic consequences (pages 809–818)

      Ruth G. Shaw, Stuart Wagenius and Charles J. Geyer

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12422

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      Sibmating reduces individuals’ demographic contribution by 60% over the first 12 years. Outbred individuals tolerate this aphid; each produces on average about 200 achenes per head in a year, despite a heavy aphid-load the previous year. However, inbreeding, which is greater in severely fragmented prairie habitat, results in poor tolerance. Aphid herbivory exacerbates inbreeding depression, further reducing the contribution of those individuals to population growth. This study illustrates an approach that helps to distinguish fitness-dependent attraction of herbivores from the effects of herbivory on plant fitness and demography, a goal that is critically important to eco-evolutionary understanding.

    4. Avoiding the crowds: the evolution of plastic responses to seasonal cues in a density-dependent world (pages 819–828)

      C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Liana T. Burghardt and David N. Koons

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12391

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      Even if there is a restricted time-period in the year during which environmental conditions are most appropriate for germination, observed timing of germination might be very diverse. Density dependence selects for persistence of traits conferring variance in timing across the year; and additionally can lead to evolutionary branching of mean germination timing, resulting in multiple coexisting genotypes corresponding to different mean germination timings.

    5. Feeding evolution of a herbivore influences an arthropod community through plants: implications for plant-mediated eco-evolutionary feedback loop (pages 829–839)

      Shunsuke Utsumi

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12419

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      Evolutionary changes in feeding traits within an herbivore species had profound but predictable impact on local arthropod communities. Because the feeding evolution of herbivores nearly always occurs in a community context, plant-mediated feedback loops between the evolution and ecological community of arthropods may be widespread in nature.

    6. Tree genotype mediates covariance among communities from microbes to lichens and arthropods (pages 840–850)

      Louis J. Lamit, Posy E. Busby, Matthew K. Lau, Zacchaeus G. Compson, Todd Wojtowicz, Arthur R. Keith, Matthew S. Zinkgraf, Jennifer A. Schweitzer, Stephen M. Shuster, Catherine A. Gehring and Thomas G. Whitham

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12416

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      The field of community genetics demonstrates that the structure of communities varies among plant genotypes; our results add to this field by showing that disparate communities covary among plant genotypes. Eco-evolutionary dynamics between plants and their associated organisms may therefore be mediated by the shared connections of different communities to plant genotype, indicating that the organization of biodiversity in this system is genetically based and non-neutral.

  2. Plant–herbivore interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Wave-induced changes in seaweed toughness entail plastic modifications in snail traits maintaining consumption efficacy (pages 851–859)

      Markus Molis, Ricardo A. Scrosati, Ehab F. El-Belely, Thomas J. Lesniowski and Martin Wahl

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12386

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      Experiments revealed that environmental stress (wave exposure) modulated a structural seaweed trait (thallus toughness) and, indirectly, feeding-relevant traits (radular morphology) in the seaweed's main consumer (snail), enabling snails to maintain consumption efficacy across the observed range in seaweed toughness. Thus, plasticity in consumers and their resource species may reduce the potential effects of physical stress on their interaction.

    2. You have free access to this content
    3. Nutrient enrichment alters the consequences of species loss (pages 862–870)

      Nessa E. O'Connor, Matthew E. S. Bracken, Tasman P. Crowe and Ian Donohue

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12415

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      Our findings highlight the need to include key physical drivers, such as nutrient availability, explicitly into biodiversity–ecosystem functioning models in order to move towards a predictive framework that incorporates the effects of both environmental heterogeneity and anthropogenic stressors.

  3. Invasion ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Revisiting Darwin's naturalization conundrum: explaining invasion success of non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa (pages 871–879)

      Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, Jonathan T. Davies, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Olivier Maurin and Michelle Van der Bank

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12410

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      Non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa are characterized by a suite of traits, including long flowering times, a hermaphroditic sexual system and abiotic dispersal, which may represent important adaptations promoting establishment. We suggest that differences in the evolutionary distances separating the native species pool from invasive and non-invasive species might help resolve Darwin's naturalization conundrum.

  4. Palaeoecology and land-use history

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Pollen diversity captures landscape structure and diversity (pages 880–890)

      Isabelle Matthias, Malte Sebastian Swen Semmler and Thomas Giesecke

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12404

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      Pollen counts of 50 surface samples from lakes in north-east Germany show that the Shannon index and the number of taxa in a sample of 10 pollen grains assessed through rarefaction analysis (E(T10)) are highly correlated and provide a useful measure of pollen type diversity. In combination, landscape diversity within one km of the lake and the proportion of non-forested area within seven km explain about 40 % of the variance in pollen type diversity. Together with palynological richness, pollen type diversity helps evaluating the effect of climate change and human land use on vegetation structure on long timescales.

    2. Tropical montane vegetation dynamics near the upper cloud belt strongly associated with a shifting ITCZ and fire (pages 891–903)

      Shelley D. Crausbay, Patrick H. Martin and Eugene F. Kelly

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12423

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      Shifts up- and downslope of the cloud belt's upper limit over the last 5900 years produced major vegetation changes on high mountains in the Caribbean. Habitat distribution models show that vegetation state changes were strongly linked to latitudinal position of the ITCZ, providing support for the shifting TWI hypothesis over a lifting cloud base hypothesis for tropical high elevations.

  5. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Species-specific plant–soil feedback effects on above-ground plant–insect interactions (pages 904–914)

      Martine Kos, Maarten A. B. Tuijl, Joris de Roo, Patrick P. J. Mulder and T. Martijn Bezemer

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12402

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      Our study provides novel evidence that plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on above-ground plant-insect interactions are highly species specific. Our results add a new dimension to the rapidly developing research fields of PSF and above-below-ground interactions, and highlights that these fields are tightly linked.

    2. How the litter-feeding bioturbator Orchestia gammarellus promotes late-successional saltmarsh vegetation (pages 915–924)

      Maarten Schrama, Lotte A. van Boheemen, Han Olff and Matty P. Berg

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12418

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      By demonstrating that a species traditionally considered as part of the detrital (‘brown’) food web is thus an important accelerator of vegetation succession, this study documents an important but often overlooked link in food web and ecosystem ecology.

    3. Peatland vascular plant functional types affect methane dynamics by altering microbial community structure (pages 925–934)

      Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Vincent E. J. Jassey, Martine A. R. Kox, Roeland L. Berendsen, Robert T. E. Mills, Lauric Cécillon, Jérémy Puissant, Marion Meima-Franke, Peter A. H. M. Bakker and Paul L. E. Bodelier

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12413

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      Climate change causes shifts in the composition of vascular plant functional types (PFT). Our study highlights that such alterations in PFT composition affects the microbial structure, and to a lesser extent the peat organic chemistry. Such PFT–controlled changes in the peat biotic and abiotic environment, in turn, strongly influence peatland methane dynamics.

  6. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Dispersal mode mediates the effect of patch size and patch connectivity on metacommunity diversity (pages 935–944)

      Natalie T. Jones, Rachel M. Germain, Tess N. Grainger, Aaron M. Hall, Lyn Baldwin and Benjamin Gilbert

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12405

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      We see a positive effect of stand area on diversity for most dispersal modes despite sampling equal area in all stands, which is a prediction of metacommunity theory that is normally overlooked. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering variation in the dispersal modes of focal species for explaining the diversity patterns of natural metacommunities.

    2. Hydrological conditions explain variation in wood density in riparian plants of south-eastern Australia (pages 945–956)

      James R. Lawson, Kirstie A. Fryirs and Michelle R. Leishman

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12408

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      Hydrological conditions explain variation in wood density in riparian plants of south-eastern Australia.

    3. Conspecific and phylogenetic density-dependent survival differs across life stages in a tropical forest (pages 957–966)

      Yan Zhu, Liza S. Comita, Stephen P. Hubbell and Keping Ma

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12414

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      With highly resolved species-level phylogenies, our results demonstrate that both conspecific density dependence and phylogenetic density dependence influence tropical tree survival, but that their relative importance varies with life stage and among species. Our study highlights the need to incorporate multiple life stages and multiple species when assessing the factors contributing to individual survival and species coexistence for long-lived organisms.

  7. Plant population and community dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Fungal symbionts maintain a rare plant population but demographic advantage drives the dominance of a common host (pages 967–977)

      Y. Anny Chung, Tom E. X. Miller and Jennifer A. Rudgers

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12406

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      Our results highlight the importance of plant-symbiont interactions in the persistence of a rare plant population, as well as the relatively larger contribution of intrinsic demographic differences to the dominance of a common plant population. Our study demonstrates the utility of demographic models in teasing apart the relative importance of plant demographic rates versus host-symbiont interactions on the regional abundance of rare and common host plant species.

    2. Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why (pages 978–989)

      C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. de Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter, Juan M. Posada, Catherine Potvin, Kalle Rainio, Sabrina E. Russo, Mariacarmen Ruiz-Jaen, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Campbell O. Webb, S. Joseph Wright, Rakan A. Zahawi and Andy Hector

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12401

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      The most widely studied functional traits in plant ecology, specific leaf area, wood density and seed mass, were only weakly associated with tree growth rates over broad scales. Assessing trait–growth relationships under specific environmental conditions may generate more insight than a global relationship can offer. Protium opacum was one of the 278 species examined in this study.

    3. Parental environmental effects due to contrasting watering adapt competitive ability, but not drought tolerance, in offspring of a semi-arid annual Brassicaceae (pages 990–997)

      Johannes Metz, Jonathan von Oppen and Katja Tielbörger

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12411

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      This study demonstrates the important role of adaptive parental effects (PE) for plant fitness (regarding competition) but also their limits (regarding drought) in temporally variable environments, based on the predictability of the respective environmental factor.

    4. Scale-dependent responses of longleaf pine vegetation to fire frequency and environmental context across two decades (pages 998–1008)

      Kyle A. Palmquist, Robert K. Peet and Stephen R. Mitchell

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12412

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      Disturbance is an important driver of plant community structure. We resampled a permanent vegetation plot data set in the longleaf pine ecosystem after 20 years to determine how environmental context and fire frequency influence vegetation change across multiple spatial scales. Fire frequency was less important than environmental context in predicting vegetation change. However, species richness and beta-diversity patterns were scale dependent. This study lays the groundwork for understanding how fire and environmental filtering jointly influence vegetation dynamics across space and time in fire-dependent woodlands.

    5. Fuels and fires influence vegetation via above- and belowground pathways in a high-diversity plant community (pages 1009–1019)

      Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Matthew Slocum, Jonathan A. Myers, Kyle E. Harms, William J. Platt and C. E. Timothy Paine

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12421

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      In a species-rich herbaceous plant community in the longleaf pine ecosystem, fire-residence time was a good predictor of soil heating and of vegetation response to fire, whereas temperature was not. Our results suggest soil heating is the key determinant of vegetation response to fire in ecosystems where plants persist by resprouting or reseeding from soil-stored seeds.

    6. C:N:P stoichiometry of Artemisia species and close relatives across northern China: unravelling effects of climate, soil and taxonomy (pages 1020–1031)

      Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang, Keliang Zhang and Johannes H. C. Cornelissen

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12409

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      Our results highlight that even closely related species can vary importantly in plant element stoichiometry. This suggests that ecologists and global change researchers should be careful not to simply take a species’ stoichiometry as representative of an entire taxonomic group for upscaling of plant chemical responses to climatic and edaphic variation in our fast changing world.

    7. Resilience of palm populations to disturbance is determined by interactive effects of fire, herbivory and harvest (pages 1032–1043)

      Lisa Mandle, Tamara Ticktin and Pieter A. Zuidema

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12420

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      We construct integral projection models of mountain date palm (Phoenix loureiroi) population dynamics to understand the implications of varying fire return intervals and intensities of grazing and leaf harvest for population persistence. Our study illustrates the importance of explicitly incorporating realistic interactions among multiple forms of disturbance when evaluating plant populations' resilience to changing disturbance regimes.

    8. Escape of spring frost and disease through phenological variations in oak populations along elevation gradients (pages 1044–1056)

      Cécile Françoise Dantec, Hugo Ducasse, Xavier Capdevielle, Olivier Fabreguettes, Sylvain Delzon and Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12403

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      The observed patterns suggest that oak populations are better adapted to escape spring frost than pathogen exposure all along the elevation gradient. The combination of the biotic and abiotic selective pressures may have contributed to the maintenance of phenological diversity within low elevation tree populations. As tree and pathogen respond differently to environmental cues, climate change is likely to affect the phenological (a)synchrony between host and parasite, both within and between populations.

  8. Plant development and life-history traits

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. Seed size and the evolution of leaf defences (pages 1057–1068)

      Thomas S. Kraft, S. Joseph Wright, Ian Turner, Peter W. Lucas, Christopher E. Oufiero, Md. Nur Supardi Noor, I-Fang Sun and Nathaniel J. Dominy

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12407

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      Our results suggest that larger seed size and increased leaf toughness are correlated as part of a trait syndrome associated with a slow, resource-limited life history, not clumped dispersion and increased spatial apparency.

  9. Biological Flora of the British Isles

    1. Top of page
    2. SPECIAL FEATURE: ECO-EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS IN PLANTS: INTERACTIVE PROCESSES AT OVERLAPPING TIMESCALES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
    3. Plant–herbivore interactions
    4. Invasion ecology
    5. Palaeoecology and land-use history
    6. Plant–soil (below-ground) interactions
    7. Determinants of plant community diversity and structure
    8. Plant population and community dynamics
    9. Plant development and life-history traits
    10. Biological Flora of the British Isles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ambrosia artemisiifolia (pages 1069–1098)

      Franz Essl, Krisztina Biró, Dietmar Brandes, Olivier Broennimann, James M. Bullock, Daniel S. Chapman, Bruno Chauvel, Stefan Dullinger, Boris Fumanal, Antoine Guisan, Gerhard Karrer, Gabriella Kazinczi, Christoph Kueffer, Beryl Laitung, Claude Lavoie, Michael Leitner, Thomas Mang, Dietmar Moser, Heinz Müller-Schärer, Blaise Petitpierre, Robert Richter, Urs Schaffner, Matt Smith, Uwe Starfinger, Robert Vautard, Gero Vogl, Moritz von der Lippe and Swen Follak

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12424

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      Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a monoecious, wind-pollinated, annual herb that was introduced into Europe with seed imports from North America in the 19th century and is now abundant as a ruderal and agricultural weed. In Europe, it can cause substantial crop-yield losses and its copious, highly allergenic pollen creates considerable public health problems. The consensus among models is that climate change will allow its northward and up-hill spread in Europe.

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