Does host determine short-range flight capacity of trichogrammatids?

Authors

  • N. S. Dias-Pini,

    1. Department of Entomology and Acarology, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    Current affiliation:
    1. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agroindústria Tropical, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
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  • C. S. B. DaSilva,

    1. Department of Entomology and Acarology, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    Current affiliation:
    1. Leal's Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
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  • M. F. G. V. Peñaflor,

    1. Department of Entomology and Acarology, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
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  • J. R. P. Parra

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Entomology and Acarology, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
    • Correspondence

      José Roberto Postali Parra (corresponding author), Department of Entomology and Acarology, ESALQ/USP, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, CP 09 CEP: 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. E-mail: jrpparra@usp.br

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Abstract

Biological traits, such as body size, fecundity and fertility, of egg parasitoids are strongly influenced by host species, and the use of a single-host species for consecutive generations has been showed to be detrimental for egg parasitoid biology. Besides biological traits, behaviour of egg parasitoids is also an important parameter for implying their performance in the field, but information about the effect of host on the behaviour of egg parasitoids is still scarce. Thus, this work aimed at determining the influence of host species on the short-range flight capacity of three egg parasitoids Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner and Trichogramma bruni Nagajara reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), for first, 10 and 28 consecutive generations. Trichogrammatids emerged inside a tubular dark flight chamber, under controlled conditions, and short-range flying response was based on the proportions of adults trapped to the sticky top of the chamber and the ones found on the bottom, which were checked for defective wings. Our data clearly demonstrate that trichogrammatid short-range flight depends on the fasctidious host species. All three egg parasitoids had their flight capacity significantly reduced when emerged from S. cerealella. The highest flying capacity of T. annulata was registered when reared on C. cephalonica, while for T. atopovirilia was on A. kuehniella and T. bruni on both C. cephalonica and A. kuehniella. Parasitoid flight capacity is affected when reared on the same host over generations; however, it was not possible to define a pattern for any of the trichogrammatids. Our findings are of great relevance for quality control of mass-reared egg parasitoids because measuring only behavioural traits with use of flight chambers can be more practical and less time-consuming than assessing biological parameters.

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