The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the key pest of olives (Olea europaea L.). Classical biological control against this insect was previously attempted in Spain with Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with very limited success. Other parasitoids are now available for new classical biological control programmes. Before release of exotic parasitoids, an assessment of their potential impact on non-target species is required. Surveys were conducted in different olive groves in south-eastern Madrid to study wild tephritids associated with Asteraceae plants. We recorded plant species and their abundance and collected flower heads to identify and quantify tephritid species. Fruits from Rosa canina L. were also collected. After a multicriteria analysis (MCA), we propose Urophora hispanica Strobl, U. stylata (Fabricius) and Carpomya schineri (Loew) as candidates for further risk assessment experiments. Additional information on new associations between tephritid flies and Asteraceae plants and on autochthonous Hymenoptera parasitizing tephritids is provided.