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Muscle development in the bamboo sole Heteromycteris japonicus with special reference to larval branchial levators

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Abstract

Muscle development in the bamboo sole Heteromycteris japonicus was investigated, focusing primarily on the cranial muscles, using an improved whole mount immunohistochemical staining method with potassium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide and trypsin. Larvae of H. japonicus had branchial levators, but not all of them were retained in adults, a condition also seen in the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In particular, larval branchial levators II and III disappeared during development, while I and IV remained to become the levator internus I and levator posterior, which were well-defined muscles in adults. In place of the atrophied muscles, levatores externi and levator internus II developed and regulated the branchial arches. The results showed that the muscle composition in the dorsal branchial arches changed to the adult form before metamorphosis in H. japonicus, as seen in P. olivaceus, and this transformation may be common to all members of that group.

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