jfb12289-sup-0001-Figures1.pptPowerPoint presentation9811KFig. S1. Two pods of air breathing Alcolapia grahami present at dusk in Fish Springs Lagoon, 1804 hours. (b) An enlargement of the air breathing pods in photograph (a). The two pods are circled. Note the cohesive structure of each pod.
jfb12289-sup-0002-FigureS2.pptPowerPoint presentation7072KFig. S2. Air breathing Alcolapia grahami located diffusely over part of Fish Springs Lagoon at dusk, 1815 hours. The regions are circled. The open mouths of the fish appear as black dots.
jfb12289-sup-0003-MovieS1.MOVapplication/unknown4613KMovie S1. Air breathing Alcolapia grahami in the protective corner of the wall at Fish Springs Lagoon half an hour after dawn, 0628 hours.
jfb12289-sup-0004-Movies2.MOVapplication/unknown11710KMovie S2. An example of the mobile boundaries and movement of a pod of air breathing Alcolapia grahami in Fish Springs Lagoon.
jfb12289-sup-0005-MovieS3.MOVapplication/unknown4199KMovie S3. An example of an Alcolapia grahami air breathing outside of the pod (see top centre of the video) and the ramming action of larger fish which stop the former from air breathing 5·5–6 s into the video. An air breathing pod is towards the bottom left.
jfb12289-sup-0006-MovieS4.zipapplication/winzip10787KMovie S4. A comparison of the movement within (a) a pod of air breathing Alcolapia grahami in the early morning (Fish Springs Lagoon, 0759 hours) and (b) a group of fish using aquatic surface respiration (ASR) (Pump House Holding Pond, 0733 hours). Note that at Pump House Holding Pond, while the majority of fish are using ASR some fish are air breathing, as noted by the dark open mouths.
jfb12289-sup-0007-MovieS5.zipapplication/winzip54303KMovie S5. Close up of individual Alcolapia grahami that are air breathing. (a) Air breathing posture, the rapid buccal movements characteristic of air breathing, the reduced amplitude of opercular movement during air breathing and release of air bubbles at the end of a bout of air breathing. (b) Transition of a fish with regular movement of water past the gills with larger opercular movements to air breathing and smaller opercular movements. Speed=one fifth of true time. (c) A fish going between air breathing and not air breathing, as viewed from the side.

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