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Changes in reproductive physiology of mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus following exposure to environmentally relevant doses of ethinyl oestradiol



Kryptolebias marmoratus exposed to 4 ng l−1 of ethinyl oestradiol (EE2) for 30 days experienced significant changes in endogenous 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) and qualitative changes in gonad morphology. Both hermaphrodites and males showed a significant decrease in E2, whereas only males exhibited a significant decrease in KT. Exposure to EE2 resulted in a decrease in spermatid and spermatocyte density in males and an increase in the number of early stage oocytes in hermaphrodites.