The current work presents a study of rheological, thermal and functional properties of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) produced from beet pulp compared with commercial CMC primarily at low-solid concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated two endothermic peaks around 104, 173C and two exothermic peaks at 307 and 361C. The flow properties of produced CMC were performed under steady shear at different pH and salt (NaCl) contents using Power law equation. Changes in the viscosity were observed depending on the type and concentration of hydrocolloid. Apparent viscosity of CMC samples decreased at acidic and alkaline pH solutions and at the presence of salt, because of the reduction in carboxylate repulsion of the CMC backbone. Furthermore, the effect of produced CMC on rheological and serum loss of ketchup was investigated. The data showed promising outcomes for the addition of beet pulp CMC in ketchup formulation with a decrease in serum separation during storage time.
The direct use of food industry wastes in food formulations can help reduce the production costs by decreasing raw material and disposal expenses. The present article demonstrated that the use of beet pulp carboxymethyl cellulose would improve the functional and rheological quality of ketchup products. The outcome of the present study will have greater potential for ketchup industries to develop tomato products.