Microbial Levels in Apple Must and Their Association with Fruit Selection, Washing and Sanitization
Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Food Safety
Volume 34, Issue 2, pages 141–149, May 2014
How to Cite
Gomes, T. A., Filho, M. R. S., Zielinski, A. A. F., Pietrowski, G. d. A. M. and Nogueira, A. (2014), Microbial Levels in Apple Must and Their Association with Fruit Selection, Washing and Sanitization. Journal of Food Safety, 34: 141–149. doi: 10.1111/jfs.12107
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 FEB 2014
- National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq)
- Araucaria Foundation (FA)
- Coordination for the Improvement of Personnel in Higher Level (CAPES)
This study evaluated the effect of the operations of selection, cleaning and sanitizing with sodium hypochlorite, on the populations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria present in apple cider must, elaborated from commercial and industrial fruit. The microbial load differed between the cultivars and classes of fruit. The total populations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria were higher in the industrial fruit. The operation of selection avoided cross-contamination and the presence of organic compounds that might react with the chlorine. Washing the apples decreased the populations of these microorganisms by one logarithmic cycle. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that sanitization was effective at a concentration of 100 mg/L for 5 min. The sanitizer was not effective in totally eliminating the microorganisms in populations greater than 104 CFU/mL. Selection and washing help reduce natural microbiota, making sanitization more effective, and positively affecting food safety and the quality of unpasteurized cider.
This article presents the results, and a thorough discussion, of the use of pre-fermentation operations that can be used to reduce the microbial load of apple must, which is to be turned into cider. Among all the various techniques and controls, the three that were most noteworthy were analyzed (selection of fruits, washing and sanitizing with chlorine, followed by rinsing). These operations are critical control points, and if they are planned and monitored then can reduce or eliminate microorganisms (pathogens or not), eliminate or reduce the need for sulfite, facilitate the cleaning and disinfection of the environment and equipment, increase food safety, and ensure the production of high-quality unpasteurized cider.