Background and Aim
Symptomatic gallstone disease (SGSD) induced several inflammatory responses and affected extrahepatic bile ducts. Although the pathology and environmental risk factors of gallstone disease are well documented, immune or inflammatory responses in SGSD development are still inconclusive. Interleukin 18 (IL18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in immune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases because of the induction of interferon-γ. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms of the IL18 gene were associated with SGSD susceptibility.