Declarations of conflict of interest: All authors have nothing to disclose.
Asia–Pacific consensus recommendations for endoscopic and interventional management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma
Article first published online: 25 MAR 2013
© 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 593–607, April 2013
How to Cite
Rerknimitr, R., Angsuwatcharakon, P., Ratanachu-ek, T., Khor, C. J. L., Ponnudurai, R., Moon, J. H., Seo, D. W., Pantongrag-Brown, L., Sangchan, A., Pisespongsa, P., Akaraviputh, T., Reddy, N. D., Maydeo, A., Itoi, T., Pausawasdi, N., Punamiya, S., Attasaranya, S., Devereaux, B., Ramchandani, M. and Goh, K.-L. (2013), Asia–Pacific consensus recommendations for endoscopic and interventional management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 28: 593–607. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12128
Author contributions: RR was involved with the consensus concept and design, acquisition of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, obtain funding, and participation in electronic and face-to-face voting. PA and TR were involved with the consensus concept and design, acquisition of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, and participation in electronic and face-to-face voting. CK, RP, JM, DS, LP, AS, PP, TA, DR, AM, SP, PK, MR, and MK were involved with drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, and participation in electronic and face-to-face voting. TI was involved with drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, and participation in electronic voting. NP, ST, SA, BD, HW, EO, DL, and PM were involved with critical revision of the manuscript, and participation in electronic and face-to-face voting. KG and BO were involved with critical revision of the manuscript and participation in electronic voting. SC and AJ were involved with study supervision and participation in electronic voting. VB was involved with study supervision.
Funding resources: An unrestricted education grant was donated from Boston Scientific, Asia–Pacific. The Thai Association of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy supported for all local logistics and pre-consensus preparation. The industrial sponsor did not participate in the literature collection, consensus discussion, voting, and manuscript preparation and it chose to remain anonymous.
The consensus statements have been presented during the Asian Pacific Digestive Week (APDW) 2012, in Bangkok, Thailand, and part of the manuscript has been published in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology supplement issue for APDW.
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 25 MAR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 25 JAN 2013 11:56AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 DEC 2012
- consensus recommendations;
- hilar cholangiocarcinoma;
- Klatskin's tumor;
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) is one of the most common types of hepatobiliary cancers reported in the world including Asia–Pacific region. Early HCCA may be completely asymptomatic. When significant hilar obstruction develops, the patient presents with jaundice, pale stools, dark urine, pruritus, abdominal pain, and sometimes fever. Because no single test can establish the definite diagnosis then, a combination of many investigations such as tumor markers, tissue acquisition, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography/intraductal ultrasonography, and advanced cholangioscopy is required. Surgery is the only curative treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of HCCA has a poor prognosis due to their advanced stage on presentation. Although there is no survival advantage, inoperable HCCA managed by palliative drainage may benefit from symptomatic improvement. Currently, there are three techniques of biliary drainage which include endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical approaches. For nonsurgical approaches, stent is the most preferred device and there are two types of stents i.e. plastic and metal. Type of stent and number of stent for HCCA biliary drainage are subjected to debate because the decision is made under many grounds i.e. volume of liver drainage, life expectancy, expertise of the facility, etc. Recently, radio-frequency ablation and photodynamic therapy are promising techniques that may extend drainage patency. Through a review in the literature and regional data, the Asia–Pacific Working Group for hepatobiliary cancers has developed statements to assist clinicians in diagnosing and managing of HCCA. After voting anonymously using modified Delphi method, all final statements were determined for the level of evidence quality and strength of recommendation.