• cell and molecular biology;
  • liver immunobiology;
  • viral hepatitis


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant global health problem, affecting over 150 million people worldwide. While the critical role of the adaptive immune system in HCV infection is well-established, the importance of the innate immune system in HCV infection has only been recognized in more recent years. Toll-like receptors form the cornerstone of the innate immune response, and there is considerable evidence for their crucial role in hepatitis C infection. This review outlines recent advances made in our understanding of the role of Toll-like receptor function in HCV infection, exploring how HCV manipulates host immunity to evade immune clearance and establish persistent infection despite leading to inflammatory hepatic damage.