Toll-like receptors in hepatitis C infection: Implications for pathogenesis and treatment


  • Author Disclosures: No author had any disclosures to make relevant to this manuscript.
  • Grant Support: Dr Jessica Howell received scholarship funds for stipend from the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA).


Dr Jessica Howell, Liver Transplant Unit, Austin Hospital, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia. Email:;


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant global health problem, affecting over 150 million people worldwide. While the critical role of the adaptive immune system in HCV infection is well-established, the importance of the innate immune system in HCV infection has only been recognized in more recent years. Toll-like receptors form the cornerstone of the innate immune response, and there is considerable evidence for their crucial role in hepatitis C infection. This review outlines recent advances made in our understanding of the role of Toll-like receptor function in HCV infection, exploring how HCV manipulates host immunity to evade immune clearance and establish persistent infection despite leading to inflammatory hepatic damage.