Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetics – prevalence and predictive factors in a multiracial hospital clinic population in Malaysia
Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013
© 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 28, Issue 8, pages 1375–1383, August 2013
How to Cite
Chan, W.-K., Tan, A. T.-B., Vethakkan, S. R., Tah, P.-C., Vijayananthan, A. and Goh, K.-L. (2013), Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diabetics – prevalence and predictive factors in a multiracial hospital clinic population in Malaysia. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 28: 1375–1383. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12204
- Issue published online: 22 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 21 MAR 2013 05:26AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAR 2013
- University of Malaya Research Grant (UMRG). Grant Number: RG375-11HTM
- diabetes mellitus;
- dietary intake;
- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease;
- physical activity
Background and Aim
There is currently no published study comparing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated factors among diabetics of different ethnicity in the Asia-Pacific region.
Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients in the Diabetic Clinic in University of Malaya Medical Centre. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire were used to assess physical activity and dietary intake, respectively. Diagnosis of NAFLD was ultrasound-based and following exclusion of significant alcohol intake.
Data for 399 patients were analyzed (mean age 62.3 ± 10.5 years, 43.1% men). The racial distribution was Chinese 43.6%, Indian 33.1%, Malay 22.3%, and others 1.0%. The prevalence of NAFLD was 49.6%. On univariate analysis, factors associated with NAFLD were age < 65 years, race, obesity, central obesity, glycated hemoglobin ≥ 7.0%, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Patients with low physical activity were more likely to have NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06–2.63, P = 0.020). The prevalence of NAFLD was highest among Malays (60.7%), followed by Indians (51.5%), and lowest among Chinese (42.0%) consistent with higher prevalence of central obesity and higher percentage calorie intake from fat in the former groups of patients. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with NAFLD were central obesity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.29–3.75, P = 0.004) and elevated serum ALT level (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.21–3.25, P = 0.007).
NAFLD was seen in half of a cohort of diabetic patients and was independently associated with central obesity and elevated serum ALT level. Prevalence of NAFLD was different and paralleled the difference in prevalence of central obesity and in percentage calorie intake from fat among the different ethnic groups.