Conflict of interest: Satoshi Mochida has received research grants, speaking fees or honoraria from Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd, Astellas Pharma Inc., Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Bristol Myers Squibb, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai Pharmaceutical, GlaxoSmithKline K.K., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, MSD K.K., Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, and Toray Medical Co., Ltd.
Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using a microballoon catheter for intractable gastric fundal varices
Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014
© 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume 29, Issue 2, pages 365–371, February 2014
How to Cite
Imai, Y., Nakazawa, M., Ando, S., Sugawara, K., Hamaoka, K., Oka, M. and Mochida, S. (2014), Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using a microballoon catheter for intractable gastric fundal varices. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 29: 365–371. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12351
- Issue published online: 27 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 8 AUG 2013 08:23AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 JUL 2013
- left inferior phrenic vein;
- microballoon catheter;
- pericardiophrenic vein
Background and Aim
Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) is recognized as the standard therapy for patients with gastric fundal varices in Japan; however, the procedure is difficult when drainage veins other than the gastrorenal shunt developed. The efficacy and safety of B-RTO using a microballoon catheter for such patients were evaluated.
The subjects were 99 patients with gastric fundal varices who fulfilled the criteria for receiving endoscopic and/or interventional therapies. Among these, 95 patients underwent B-RTO. Of the 95 patients, 14 were treated with the use of microballoon catheters, including nine in whom the left inferior phrenic vein was found as a secondary drainage vein in addition to the gastrorenal shunt, and five in whom a gastrorenal shunt was absent. The B-RTO procedure performed using a microballoon catheter inserted through the left inferior phrenic vein in 13 patients, and through the pericardiophrenic vein in one patient.
The B-RTO procedure using microballoon catheters was successful in 13 of the 14 patients (93%), while in the remaining one patient, multiple drainage veins were visualized on venography. Complete obliteration of the varices was achieved in all the 13 patients by injection of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol at a median volume of 25 mL (range, 11 to 40 mL) through the catheters. None of the patients showed injuries of the drainage veins or any systemic complications.
B-RTO using a microballoon catheter is useful for the treatment of gastric fundal varices in which drainage veins other than the gastrorenal shunt developed.