SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Fine KD, Schiller L. AGA technical review on the evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 14641486.
  • 2
    Schiller LR, Sellin JH. Diarrhea. In: Feldman M , Friedman L , Brandt LJ , eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2010; 211232.
  • 3
    Flexner SB , ed. Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd edn. New York: Random House, 1987.
  • 4
    Wenzl HH, Fine KD, Schiller LR, Fordtran JS. Determinants of decreased fecal consistency in patients with diarrhea. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 17291738.
  • 5
    Heaton KW, Radvan J, Cripps H, Mountford RA, Braddon FE, Hughes AO. Defecation frequency and timing, and stool form in the general population: a prospective study. Gut 1992; 33: 818824.
  • 6
    Choung RS, Locke GR 3rd, Zinsmeister AR, Schleck CD, Talley NJ. Epidemiology of slow and fast colonic transit using a scale of stool form in a community. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2007; 26: 10431050.
  • 7
    Tucker DM, Sandstead HH, Logan GM Jr. et al. Dietary fiber and personality factors as determinants of stool output. Gastroenterology 1981; 81: 879883.
  • 8
    Steffer KJ, Santa Ana CA, Cole JA, Fordtran JS. The practical value of comprehensive stool analysis in detecting the cause of idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 41: 539560.
  • 9
    Leigh RJ, Turnberg LA. Faecal incontinence: the unvoiced symptom. Lancet 1982; 1: 13491351.
  • 10
    Pawlowski SW, Warren CA, Guerrant R. Diagnosis and treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 18741886.
  • 11
    Schiller LR. Chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 287293.
  • 12
    Schiller LR. Definitions, pathophysiology, and evaluation of chronic diarrhoea. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012; 26: 551562.
  • 13
    Longstreth GF, Thompson WG, Chey WD, Houghton LA, Mearin F, Spiller RC. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 14801491.
  • 14
    Abraham BP, Sellin JH. Drug-induced, factitious, & idiopathic diarrhoea. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012; 26: 633648.
  • 15
    Bardhan KD, Bodemar G, Geldof H et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled dose-ranging study to evaluate the efficacy of alosetron in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2000; 14: 2334.
  • 16
    Pardi DS, Loftus EV Jr, Smyrk TC et al. The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a population based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gut 2007; 56: 504508.
  • 17
    Jones R, Latinovic R, Charlton J, Gulliford M. Physical and psychological co-morbidity in irritable bowel syndrome: a matched cohort study using the General Practice Research Database. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006; 24: 879886.
  • 18
    Koskela RM, Niemela SE, Karttunen TJ, Lehtola JK. Clinical characteristics of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2004; 39: 837845.
  • 19
    Tillisch K, Labus JS, Naliboff BD et al. Characterization of the alternating bowel habit subtype in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 896904.
    Direct Link:
  • 20
    Whitehead WE, Palsson O, Jones KR. Systematic review of the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome with other disorders: what are the causes and implications? Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 11401156.
  • 21
    Spiller RC, Humes DJ, Campbell E et al. The Patient Health Questionnaire 12 Somatic Symptom scale as a predictor of symptom severity and consulting behaviour in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and symptomatic diverticular disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010; 32: 811820.
  • 22
    Denham JM, Hill ID. Celiac disease and autoimmunity: review and controversies. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013; 13: 347353.
  • 23
    Burgmann T, Clara I, Graff L et al. The Manitoba Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study: prolonged symptoms before diagnosis—How much is irritable bowel syndrome? Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2006; 4: 614620.
  • 24
    Chande N, Driman DK. Microscopic colitis associated with lansoprazole: report of two cases and a review of the literature. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2007; 42: 530533.
  • 25
    Keszthelyi D, Jansen SV, Schouten GA et al. Proton pump inhibitor use is associated with an increased risk for microscopic colitis: a case-control study. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010; 32: 11241128.
  • 26
    Starr JM, Impallomeni M. Risk of diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile and cefotaxime in the elderly. Biomed. Pharmacother. 1997; 51: 6367.
  • 27
    Simpson K, Jarvis B. Lisinopril: a review of its use in congestive heart failure. Drugs 2000; 59: 11491167.
  • 28
    Fosnes GS, Lydersen S, Farup PG. Constipation and diarrhoea—Common adverse drug reactions? A cross sectional study in the general population. BMC Clin. Pharmacol. 2011; 11: 2.
  • 29
    Filippatos TD, Derdemezis CS, Gazi IF, Nakou ES, Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf MS. Orlistat-associated adverse effects and drug interactions: a critical review. Drug Saf. 2008; 31: 5365.
  • 30
    Acharya NV, Wilton LV, Shakir SA. Safety profile of orlistat: results of a prescription-event monitoring study. Int. J. Obes. 2006; 30: 16451652.
  • 31
    Grandjean EM, Aubry JM. Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach: part III: clinical safety. CNS Drugs 2009; 23: 397418.
  • 32
    Spiller R, Garsed K. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 19791988.
  • 33
    Gradel KO, Nielsen HL, Schonheyder HC, Ejlertsen T, Kristensen B, Nielsen H. Increased short- and long-term risk of inflammatory bowel disease after Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 2009; 137: 495501.
  • 34
    Niaz SK, Sandrasegaran K, Renny FH, Jones BJ. Postinfective diarrhoea and bile acid malabsorption. J. Royal Coll. Physicians Lond. 1997; 31: 5356.
  • 35
    Schiller LR. Malabsorption. In: Bope ET , Kellerman R , Rakel RE , eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2011. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2011; 553559.
  • 36
    Pimentel M, Hwang L, Melmed GY et al. New clinical method for distinguishing D-IBS from other gastrointestinal conditions causing diarrhea: the LA/IBS diagnostic strategy. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2010; 55: 145149.
  • 37
    Palsson OS, Baggish JS, Turner MJ, Whitehead WE. IBS patients show frequent fluctuations between loose/watery and hard/lumpy stools: implications for treatment. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2012; 107: 286295.
  • 38
    Olesen M, Eriksson S, Bohr J, Jarnerot G, Tysk C. Microscopic colitis: a common diarrhoeal disease. An epidemiological study in Orebro, Sweden, 1993–1998. Gut 2004; 53: 346350.
  • 39
    Weinland SR, Morris CB, Hu Y, Leserman J, Bangdiwala SI, Drossman DA. Characterization of episodes of irritable bowel syndrome using ecological momentary assessment. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2011; 106: 18131820.
  • 40
    Mekhjian HS, Switz DM, Melnyk CS, Rankin GB, Brooks RK. Clinical features and natural history of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1979; 77 (4 Pt 2): 898906.
  • 41
    Whitehead WE, Palsson OS, Feld AD et al. Utility of red flag symptom exclusions in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006; 24: 137146.
  • 42
    de Kort S, Kruimel JW, Sels JP, Arts IC, Schaper NC, Masclee AA. Gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus, and their relation to anxiety and depression. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2012; 96: 248255.
  • 43
    Sinha L, Liston R, Testa HJ, Moriarty KJ. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption: qualitative and quantitative clinical features and response to cholestyramine. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 1998; 12: 839844.
  • 44
    Bode S, Gudmand-Hoyer E. Symptoms and haematologic features in consecutive adult coeliac patients. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 5460.
  • 45
    Savas LS, White DL, Wieman M et al. Irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia among women veterans: prevalence and association with psychological distress. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2009; 29: 115125.
  • 46
    Walker EA, Katon WJ, Jemelka RP, Roy-Bryne PP. Comorbidity of gastrointestinal complaints, depression, and anxiety in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. Am. J. Med. 1992; 92: 26s30s.
  • 47
    Foley S, Garsed K, Singh G et al. Impaired uptake of serotonin by platelets from patients with irritable bowel syndrome correlates with duodenal immune activation. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 14341443.
  • 48
    Sayuk GS, Elwing JE, Lustman PJ, Clouse RE. High somatic symptom burdens and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2007; 5: 556562.
  • 49
    Barrett JS, Gearry RB, Muir JG et al. Dietary poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2010; 31: 874882.
  • 50
    Ong DK, Mitchell SB, Barrett JS et al. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2010; 25: 13661373.
  • 51
    Hammer HF, Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, Schiller LR, Fordtran JS. Carbohydrate malabsorption. Its measurement and its contribution to diarrhea. J. Clin. Invest. 1990; 86: 19361944.
  • 52
    Jones HF, Butler RN, Brooks DA. Intestinal fructose transport and malabsorption in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2011; 300: G202206.
  • 53
    Rasinpera H, Savilahti E, Enattah NS et al. A genetic test which can be used to diagnose adult-type hypolactasia in children. Gut 2004; 53: 15711576.
  • 54
    Hammer HF, Hammer J. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 41: 611627.
  • 55
    Lomer MC, Parkes GC, Sanderson JD. Review article: lactose intolerance in clinical practice–myths and realities. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 27: 93103.
  • 56
    Bode C, Bode JC. Effect of alcohol consumption on the gut. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2003; 17: 575592.
  • 57
    Wald A, Back C, Bayless TM. Effect of caffeine on the human small intestine. Gastroenterology 1976; 71: 738742.
  • 58
    Abraham B, Sellin JH. Drug-induced diarrhea. Curr. Gastroenterol. Rep. 2007; 9: 365372.
  • 59
    Ilangovan R, Burling D, George A, Gupta A, Marshall M, Taylor SA. CT enterography: review of technique and practical tips. Br. J. Radiol. 2012; 85: 876886.
  • 60
    Elsayes KM, Al-Hawary MM, Jagdish J, Ganesh HS, Platt JF. CT enterography: principles, trends, and interpretation of findings. Radiographics 2010; 30: 19551970.
  • 61
    Siddiki HA, Fidler JL, Fletcher JG et al. Prospective comparison of state-of-the-art MR enterography and CT enterography in small-bowel Crohn's disease. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 2009; 193: 113121.
  • 62
    Scholz FJ, Afnan J, Behr SC. CT findings in adult celiac disease. Radiographics 2011; 31: 977992.
  • 63
    van der Merwe BS, Ackermann C, Els H. CT enteroclysis in the developing world: how we do it, and the pathology we see. Eur. J. Radiol. 2013; 82: e317325.
  • 64
    Tirkes T, Menias CO, Sandrasegaran K. MR imaging techniques for pancreas. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 50: 379393.
  • 65
    Sundin A. Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012; 26: 803818.
  • 66
    Bural GG, Muthukrishnan A, Oborski MJ, Mountz JM. Improved benefit of SPECT/CT compared to SPECT alone for the accurate localization of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. Mol. Imaging Radionucl. Ther. 2012; 21: 9196.
  • 67
    Minutoli F, Herberg A, Sindoni A, Cardile D, Cucinotta M, Baldari S. Peptide receptor imaging in neuroendocrine tumors: comparison between diagnostic scintigraphy and post-therapy whole-body scan. Ann. Nucl. Med. 2013; 27: 654660.
  • 68
    Cronin CG, Scott J, Kambadakone A et al. Utility of positron emission tomography/CT in the evaluation of small bowel pathology. Br. J. Radiol. 2012; 85: 12111221.
  • 69
    Cammarota G, Fedeli P, Gasbarrini A. Emerging technologies in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and celiac disease. Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2009; 6: 4756.
  • 70
    Gunther U, Daum S, Heller F et al. Diagnostic value of confocal endomicroscopy in celiac disease. Endoscopy 2010; 42: 197202.
  • 71
    Ravelli A, Villanacci V, Monfredini C, Martinazzi S, Grassi V, Manenti S. How patchy is patchy villous atrophy?: distribution pattern of histological lesions in the duodenum of children with celiac disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2010; 105: 21032110.
  • 72
    Lebwohl B, Kapel RC, Neugut AI, Green PH, Genta RM. Adherence to biopsy guidelines increases celiac disease diagnosis. Gastrointest. Endosc. 2011; 74: 103109.
  • 73
    Solem CA, Loftus EV Jr, Fletcher JG et al. Small-bowel imaging in Crohn's disease: a prospective, blinded, 4-way comparison trial. Gastrointest. Endosc. 2008; 68: 255266.
  • 74
    Fine KD, Seidel RH, Do K. The prevalence, anatomic distribution, and diagnosis of colonic causes of chronic diarrhea. Gastrointest. Endosc. 2000; 51: 318326.
  • 75
    Petroniene R, Dubcenco E, Baker JP et al. Given capsule endoscopy in celiac disease: evaluation of diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 685694.
  • 76
    Rondonotti E, Spada C, Cave D et al. Video capsule enteroscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease: a multicenter study. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 16241631.
    Direct Link:
  • 77
    Barret M, Malamut G, Rahmi G et al. Diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in refractory celiac disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2012; 107: 15461553.
  • 78
    Hoog CM, Bark LA, Arkani J, Gorsetman J, Brostrom O, Sjoqvist U. Capsule retentions and incomplete capsule endoscopy examinations: an analysis of 2300 examinations. Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2012; 2012: 17.
  • 79
    Cheifetz AS, Kornbluth AA, Legnani P et al. The risk of retention of the capsule endoscope in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 22182222.
    Direct Link:
  • 80
    Hadithi M, Al-toma A, Oudejans J, van Bodegraven AA, Mulder CJ, Jacobs M. The value of double-balloon enteroscopy in patients with refractory celiac disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 987996.
    Direct Link:
  • 81
    Lee LS, Conwell DL. Update on advanced endoscopic techniques for the pancreas: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage and biopsy, and endoscopic ultrasound. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 50: 547561.
  • 82
    Albashir S, Stevens T. Endoscopic ultrasonography to evaluate pancreatitis. Cleve. Clin. J. Med. 2012; 79: 202206.
  • 83
    Dumonceau JM, Delhaye M, Tringali A et al. Endoscopic treatment of chronic pancreatitis: european Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline. Endoscopy 2012; 44: 784800.
  • 84
    Surawicz CM, Haggitt RC, Husseman M, McFarland LV. Mucosal biopsy diagnosis of colitis: acute self-limited colitis and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 755763.
  • 85
    Bessissow T, Lemmens B, Ferrante M et al. Prognostic value of serologic and histologic markers on clinical relapse in ulcerative colitis patients with mucosal healing. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2012; 107: 16841692.
  • 86
    Tursi A. Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis: complication of diverticular disease or autonomous entity? Dig. Dis. Sci. 2011; 56: 2734.
  • 87
    Shah RJ, Fenoglio-Preiser C, Bleau BL, Giannella RA. Usefulness of colonoscopy with biopsy in the evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 10911095.
    Direct Link:
  • 88
    Langner C. Colorectal normal histology and histopathologic findings in patients with chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 41: 561580.
  • 89
    da Silva JG, De Brito T, Cintra Damiao AO, Laudanna AA, Sipahi AM. Histologic study of colonic mucosa in patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopic findings. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2006; 40: 4448.
  • 90
    Pardi DS, Kelly CP. Microscopic colitis. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 11551165.
  • 91
    Marshall JB, Singh R, Diaz-Arias AA. Chronic, unexplained diarrhea: are biopsies necessary if colonoscopy is normal? Am. J. Ggastroenterol. 1995; 90: 372376.
  • 92
    Geboes K. The strategy for biopsies of the terminal ileum should be evidence based. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 10901092.
    Direct Link:
  • 93
    Thomas PD, Forbes A, Green J et al. Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea, 2nd edition. Gut 2003; 52 (Suppl. 5): v115.
  • 94
    Walker MM, Murray JA. An update in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Histopathology 2011; 59: 166179.
  • 95
    Freeman HJ. Adult eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypereosinophilic syndromes. World J. Gastroenterol. 2008; 14: 67716773.
  • 96
    Khanna S, Pardi DS, Rosenblatt JE, Patel R, Kammer PP, Baddour LM. An evaluation of repeat stool testing for Clostridium difficile infection by polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012; 46: 846849.
  • 97
    Coste JF, Vuiblet V, Moustapha B et al. Microbiological diagnosis of severe diarrhea in kidney transplant recipients by use of multiplex PCR assays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2013; 51: 18411849.
  • 98
    Feasey NA, Healey P, Gordon MA. Review article: the aetiology, investigation and management of diarrhoea in the HIV-positive patient. Aliment. Pharm. Ther. 2011; 34: 587603.
  • 99
    Martin-Iguacel R, Llibre JM, Nielsen H et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis: a silent endemic disease in men who have sex with men in industrialised countries. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2010; 29: 917925.
  • 100
    DuPont HL, Capsuto EG. Persistent diarrhea in travelers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1996; 22: 124128.
  • 101
    Murray JA, Rubio-Tapia A. Diarrhoea due to small bowel diseases. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012; 26: 581600.
  • 102
    Osterholm MT, MacDonald KL, White KE et al. An outbreak of a newly recognized chronic diarrhea syndrome associated with raw milk consumption. JAMA 1986; 256: 484490.
  • 103
    Kimura AC, Mead P, Walsh B et al. A large outbreak of Brainerd diarrhea associated with a restaurant in the Red River Valley, Texas. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2006; 43: 5561.
  • 104
    Afzalpurkar RG, Schiller LR, Little KH, Santangelo WC, Fordtran JS. The self-limited nature of chronic idiopathic diarrhea. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992; 327: 18491852.
  • 105
    Kaiser L, Surawicz CM. Infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2012; 26: 563571.
  • 106
    Rubio-Tapia A, Hill ID, Kelly CP, Calderwood AH, Murray JA. ACG Clinical Guidelines: diagnosis and management of celiac disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2013; 108: 656676.
  • 107
    Ludvigsson JF, Brandt L, Montgomery SM. Symptoms and signs in individuals with serology positive for celiac disease but normal mucosa. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009; 9: 57.
  • 108
    Biagi F, Trotta L, Alfano C et al. Prevalence and natural history of potential celiac disease in adult patients. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2013; 48: 537542.
  • 109
    Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC et al. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms. Gut 2013; 62: 4352.
  • 110
    Ford AC, Chey WD, Talley NJ, Malhotra A, Spiegel BM, Moayyedi P. Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch. Intern. Med. 2009; 169: 651658.
  • 111
    Cash BD, Rubenstein JH, Young PE et al. The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome is similar to controls. Gastroenterology 2011; 141: 11871193.
  • 112
    Spiegel BM, DeRosa VP, Gralnek IM, Wang V, Dulai GS. Testing for celiac sprue in irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 17211732.
  • 113
    Hadithi M, von Blomberg BM, Crusius JB et al. Accuracy of serologic tests and HLA-DQ typing for diagnosing celiac disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 2007; 147: 294302.
  • 114
    Gujral N, Freeman HJ, Thomson AB. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. World J. Gastroenterol. 2012; 18: 60366059.
  • 115
    Sellin JH, Shah RR. The promise and pitfalls of serologic testing in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 41: 463482.
  • 116
    Gupta A, Derbes C, Sellin J. Clinical indications of the use of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease at an Academic Medical Center. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2005; 11: 898902.
  • 117
    Plevy S, Silverberg MS, Lockton S et al. Combined serological, genetic, and inflammatory markers differentiate non-ibd, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis patients. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2013; 19: 11391148.
  • 118
    Gentile NM, Murray JA, Pardi DS. Autoimmune enteropathy: a review and update of clinical management. Curr. Gastroenterol. Rep. 2012; 14: 380385.
  • 119
    Fabian E, Kump P, Krejs GJ. Diarrhea caused by circulating agents. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 41: 603610.
  • 120
    Verner JV, Morrison AB. Islet cell tumor and a syndrome of refractory watery diarrhea and hypokalemia. Am. J. Med. 1958; 25: 374380.
  • 121
    Krejs GJ. VIPoma syndrome. Am. J. Med. 1987; 82: 3748.
  • 122
    Modlin IM, Lye KD, Kidd M. A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors. Cancer 2003; 97: 934959.
  • 123
    Niederle MB, Hackl M, Kaserer K, Niederle B. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: the current incidence and staging based on the WHO and European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society classification: an analysis based on prospectively collected parameters. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2010; 17: 909918.
  • 124
    Krejs GJ. Gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 1996; 220: 121123.
  • 125
    Schiller LR, Rivera LM, Santangelo WC, Little KH, Fordtran JS. Diagnostic value of fasting plasma peptide concentrations in patients with chronic diarrhea. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1994; 39: 22162222.
  • 126
    Rehfeld JF, Federspiel B, Bardram L. A neuroendocrine tumor syndrome from cholecystokinin secretion. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013; 368: 11651166.
  • 127
    Eherer AJ, Fordtran JS. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 545551.
  • 128
    Hammer HF, Santa Ana CA, Schiller LR, Fordtran JS. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose. J. Clin. Invest. 1989; 84: 10561062.
  • 129
    Abraham BP, Kane S. Fecal markers: calprotectin and lactoferrin. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2012; 41: 483495.
  • 130
    Burri E, Manz M, Rothen C, Rossi L, Beglinger C, Lehmann FS. Monoclonal antibody testing for fecal calprotectin is superior to polyclonal testing of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin to identify organic intestinal disease in patients with abdominal discomfort. Clin. Chim. Acta 2013; 416: 4147.
  • 131
    Lieb JG 2nd, Draganov PV. Pancreatic function testing: here to stay for the 21st century. World J. Gastroenterol. 2008; 14: 31493158.
  • 132
    Shelton JH, Santa Ana CA, Thompson DR, Emmett M, Fordtran JS. Factitious diarrhea induced by stimulant laxatives: accuracy of diagnosis by a clinical reference laboratory using thin layer chromatography. Clin. Chem. 2007; 53: 8590.
  • 133
    Knudsen CD, Di Palma JA. Carbohydrate challenge tests: do you need to measure methane? South. Med. J. 2012; 105: 251253.
  • 134
    Kerlin P, Wong L. Breath hydrogen testing in bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Gastroenterology 1988; 95: 982988.
  • 135
    Mac Mahon M, Gibbons N, Mullins E et al. Are hydrogen breath tests valid in the elderly? Gerontology 1996; 42: 4045.
  • 136
    Bauer TM, Schwacha H, Steinbruckner B et al. Diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with cirrhosis of the liver: poor performance of the glucose breath hydrogen test. J. Hepatol. 2000; 33: 382386.
  • 137
    Stotzer PO, Kilander AF. Comparison of the 1-gram (14)C-D-xylose breath test and the 50-gram hydrogen glucose breath test for diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Digestion 2000; 61: 165171.
  • 138
    Rhodes JM, Middleton P, Jewell DP. The lactulose hydrogen breath test as a diagnostic test for small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1979; 14: 333336.
  • 139
    Riordan SM, McIver CJ, Walker BM, Duncombe VM, Bolin TD, Thomas MC. The lactulose breath hydrogen test and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1996; 91: 17951803.
  • 140
    Corazza GR, Menozzi MG, Strocchi A et al. The diagnosis of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Reliability of jejunal culture and inadequacy of breath hydrogen testing. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 302309.
  • 141
    Ghoshal UC. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests. J. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2011; 17: 312317.
  • 142
    Sellin JH, Hart R. Glucose malabsorption associated with rapid intestinal transit. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1992; 87: 584589.
  • 143
    Yu D, Cheeseman F, Vanner S. Combined oro-caecal scintigraphy and lactulose hydrogen breath testing demonstrate that breath testing detects oro-caecal transit, not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with IBS. Gut 2011; 60: 334340.
  • 144
    Mekjian HS, Phillips SF, Hofmann AF. Colonic secretion of water and electrolytes induced by bile acids: perfusion studies in man. J. Clin. Invest. 1971; 50: 15691577.
  • 145
    Williams AJ, Merrick MV, Eastwood MA. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption—A review of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and response to treatment. Gut 1991; 32: 10041006.
  • 146
    Sciarretta G, Furno A, Morrone B, Malaguti P. Absence of histopathological changes of ileum and colon in functional chronic diarrhea associated with bile acid malabsorption, assessed by SeHCAT test: a prospective study. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1994; 89: 10581061.
  • 147
    Rossel P, Sortsoe Jensen H, Qvist P, Arveschoug A. Prognosis of adult-onset idiopathic bile acid malabsorption. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 34: 587590.
  • 148
    Fernandez-Banares F, Esteve M, Salas A et al. Systematic evaluation of the causes of chronic watery diarrhea with functional characteristics. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 25202528.
    Direct Link:
  • 149
    Luman W, Williams AJ, Merrick MV, Eastwood MA. Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption: long-term outcome. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1995; 7: 641645.
  • 150
    Schiller LR, Hogan RB, Morawski SG et al. Studies of the prevalence and significance of radiolabeled bile acid malabsorption in a group of patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Gastroenterology 1987; 92: 151160.
  • 151
    Fort JM, Azpiroz F, Casellas F, Andreu J, Malagelada JR. Bowel habit after cholecystectomy: physiological changes and clinical implications. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 617622.
  • 152
    Hearing SD, Thomas LA, Heaton KW, Hunt L. Effect of cholecystectomy on bowel function: a prospective, controlled study. Gut 1999; 45: 889894.
  • 153
    Fromm H, Tunuguntla AK, Malavolti M, Sherman C, Ceryak S. Absence of significant role of bile acids in diarrhea of a heterogeneous group of postcholecystectomy patients. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1987; 32: 3344.
  • 154
    Breuer NF, Jaekel S, Dommes P, Goebell H. Fecal bile acid excretion pattern in cholecystectomized patients. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1986; 31: 953960.
  • 155
    Vijayvargiya P, Camilleri M, Shin A, Saenger A. Methods for diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption in clinical practice. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2013; 11: 12701275. doi:pii: S1542-3565(13)00598-3. 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.04.029.
  • 156
    Fellous K, Jian R, Haniche M et al. Measurement of ileal absorption of bile salts with the selenium 75 labelled homotaurocholic acid test. Validation and clinical significance. Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. 1994; 18: 865872.
  • 157
    van Tilburg AJ, de Rooij FW, van den Berg JW, Kooij PP, van Blankenstein M. The selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine test reevaluated: combined measurement of fecal selenium-75 activity and 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acids in 211 patients. J. Nucl. Med. 1991; 32: 12191224.
  • 158
    Nyhlin H, Merrick MV, Eastwood MA, Brydon WG. Evaluation of ileal function using 23-selena-25-homotaurocholate, a-gamma-labeled conjugated bile acid. Initial clinical assessment. Gastroenterology 1983; 84: 6368.
  • 159
    Thaysen EH, Orholm M, Arnfred T, Carl J, Rodbro P. Assessment of ileal function by abdominal counting of the retention of a gamma emitting bile acid analogue. Gut 1982; 23: 862865.
  • 160
    Merrick MV, Eastwood MA, Ford MJ. Is bile acid malabsorption underdiagnosed? An evaluation of accuracy of diagnosis by measurement of SeHCAT retention. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed) 1985; 290: 665668.
  • 161
    Orholm M, Pedersen JO, Arnfred T, Rodbro P, Thaysen EH. Evaluation of the applicability of the SeHCAT test in the investigation of patients with diarrhoea. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1988; 23: 113117.
  • 162
    Chowdhury RS, Forsmark CE. Review article: pancreatic function testing. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003; 17: 733750.
  • 163
    Stevens T, Dumot JA, Parsi MA, Zuccaro G, Vargo JJ. Combined endoscopic ultrasound and secretin endoscopic pancreatic function test in patients evaluated for chronic pancreatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2010; 55: 26812687.
  • 164
    Girish BN, Rajesh G, Vaidyanathan K, Balakrishnan V. Fecal elastase1 and acid steatocrit estimation in chronic pancreatitis. Indian J. Gastroenterol. 2009; 28: 201205.
  • 165
    Hahn JU, Kerner W, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB, Lankisch PG. Low fecal elastase 1 levels do not indicate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in type-1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreas 2008; 36: 274278.
  • 166
    Dumasy V, Delhaye M, Cotton F, Deviere J. Fat malabsorption screening in chronic pancreatitis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 13501354.
    Direct Link:
  • 167
    Lembcke B, Braden B, Caspary WF. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: accuracy and clinical value of the uniformly labelled 13C-Hiolein breath test. Gut 1996; 39: 668674.
  • 168
    Braden B. (13)C breath tests for the assessment of exocrine pancreatic function. Pancreas 2010; 39: 955959.
  • 169
    Dominguez Munoz JE. Diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: functional testing. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2010; 24: 233241.
  • 170
    Gillams AR, Lees WR. Quantitative secretin MRCP (MRCPQ): results in 215 patients with known or suspected pancreatic pathology. Eur. Radiol. 2007; 17: 29842990.