• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: General Information and National Estimates on Diabetes in the United States. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011, p 2011.
  • 2
    Brown AF, Mangione CM, Saliba D et al. California Healthcare Foundation/American Geriatrics Society Panel on Improving Care for Elders with Diabetes. Guidelines for improving the care of the older person with diabetes mellitus. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51(Suppl. Guidelines):S265S280.
  • 3
    Szoke E, Shrayyef MZ, Messing S et al. Effect of aging on glucose homeostasis: Accelerated deterioration of beta-cell function in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 2008;31:539543.
  • 4
    Chang AM, Halter JB. Aging and insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003;284:E7E12.
  • 5
    Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW et al. Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: Dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalence. Popul Health Metr 2010;8:29.
  • 6
    Narayan KM, Boyle JP, Geiss LS et al. Impact of recent increase in incidence on future diabetes burden: U.S., 2005–2050. Diabetes Care 2006;29:21142116.
  • 7
    Selvin E, Coresh J, Brancati FL. The burden and treatment of diabetes in elderly individuals in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2006;29:24152419.
  • 8
    Li Y, Burrows NR, Gregg EW et al. Declining rates of hospitalization for nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation in the diabetic population aged 40 years or older: U.S., 1988–2008. Diabetes Care 2012;35:273277.
  • 9
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes public health resource, Available at Accessed September 27, 2012.
  • 10
    Schütt M, Fach EM, Seufert J et al. Multiple complications and frequent severe hypoglycaemia in ‘elderly’ and ‘old’ patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2012;29:e176e179.
  • 11
    Amati F, Dubé JJ, Coen PM et al. Physical inactivity and obesity underlie the insulin resistance of aging. Diabetes Care 2009;32:15471549.
  • 12
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393403.
  • 13
    Reers C, Erbel S, Esposito I et al. Impaired islet turnover in human donor pancreata with aging. Eur J Endocrinol 2009;160:185191.
  • 14
    Maedler K, Schumann DM, Schulthess F et al. Aging correlates with decreased beta-cell proliferative capacity and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis: A potential role for Fas and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1. Diabetes 2006;55:24552462.
  • 15
    Rankin MM, Kushner JA. Adaptive β-cell proliferation is severely restricted with advanced age. Diabetes 2009;58:13651372.
  • 16
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2012 (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 2012;35(Suppl. 1):S11S63.
  • 17
    Crandall J, Schade D, Ma Y et al. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The influence of age on the effects of lifestyle modification and metformin in prevention of diabetes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61A:10751081.
  • 18
    Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF et al. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet 2009;374:16771686.
  • 19
    Brown JS, Wing R, Barrett-Connor E et al. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Lifestyle intervention is associated with lower prevalence of urinary incontinence: The Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabetes Care 2006;29:385390.
  • 20
    Florez H, Pan Q, Ackermann RT et al. for the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of lifestyle intervention and metformin on health-related quality of life: the Diabetes Prevention Program Randomized Trial. J Gen Intern Med. June 13, 2012 [Epub ahead of print]
  • 21
    Crandall JP, Knowler WC, Kahn SE et al. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2008;4:382393.
  • 22
    Ackermann RT, Finch EA, Brizendine E et al. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program into the community: The DEPLOY Pilot Study. Am J Prev Med 2008;35:357363.
  • 23
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998;352:837853.
  • 24
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998;352:854865.
  • 25
    Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA et al. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359:15771589.
  • 26
    Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP et al. Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:25452559.
  • 27
    Miller ME, Bonds DE, Gerstein HC et al. ACCORD Investigators. The effects of baseline characteristics, glycaemia treatment approach, and glycated haemoglobin concentration on the risk of severe hypoglycaemia: Post hoc epidemiological analysis of the ACCORD study. BMJ 2010;340:b5444.
  • 28
    Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J et al. ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:25602572.
  • 29
    Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T et al. VADT Investigators. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009;360:129139.
  • 30
    Duckworth WC, Abraira C, Moritz TE et al. Investigators of the VADT. The duration of diabetes affects the response to intensive glucose control in type 2 subjects: The VA Diabetes Trial. J Diabetes Complications 2011;25:355361.
  • 31
    Skyler JS, Bergenstal R, Bonow RO et al. American Diabetes Association; American College of Cardiology Foundation; American Heart Association. Intensive glycemic control and the prevention of cardiovascular events: Implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA Diabetes Trials: A position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a scientific statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. Diabetes Care 2009;32:187192.
  • 32
    Araki A, Iimuro S, Sakurai T et al. Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial Study Group. Long-term multiple risk factor interventions in Japanese elderly diabetic patients: The Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial—study design, baseline characteristics and effects of intervention. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012;12(Suppl. 1):717.
  • 33
    Currie CJ, Peters JR, Tynan A et al. Survival as a function of HbA(1c) in people with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2010;375:481489.
  • 34
    Huang ES, Liu JY, Moffet HH et al. Glycemic control, complications, and death in older diabetic patients: The Diabetes and Aging Study. Diabetes Care 2011;34:13291336.
  • 35
    Piette JD, Kerr EA. The impact of comorbid chronic conditions on diabetes care. Diabetes Care 2006;29:725731.
  • 36
    Laiteerapong N, Huang ES, Chin MH. Prioritization of care in adults with diabetes and comorbidity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011;1243:6987.
  • 37
    Greenfield S, Billimek J, Pellegrini F et al. Comorbidity affects the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes: A cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:854860.
  • 38
    Collins R, Armitage J. High-risk elderly patients PROSPER from cholesterol-lowering therapy. Lancet 2002;360:16181619.
  • 39
    Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB et al. PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) study group. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:16231630.
  • 40
    Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM et al. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: Prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet 2005;366:12671278.
  • 41
    Cigolle CT, Blaum CS, Halter JB. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med 2009;25:607641, vii–viii.
  • 42
    Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC et al. ACCORD Study Group. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010;362:15631574.
  • 43
    Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P et al. FIELD study investigators. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): Randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:18491861.
  • 44
    Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG et al. HOT Study Group. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: Principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet 1998;351:17551762.
  • 45
    Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP et al. ACCORD Study Group. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010;362:15751585.
  • 46
    Cooper-DeHoff RM, Gong Y, Handberg EM et al. Tight blood pressure control and cardiovascular outcomes among hypertensive patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease. JAMA 2010;304:6168.
  • 47
    Anderson RJ, Bahn GD, Moritz TE et al. VADT Study Group. Blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34:3438.
  • 48
    Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R et al. Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: Collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2009;373:18491860.
  • 49
    Ogawa H, Nakayama M, Morimoto T et al. Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis With Aspirin for Diabetes (JPAD) Trial Investigators. Low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of atherosclerotic events in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;300:21342141.
  • 50
    Hernández-Díaz S. García Rodríguez LA. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications. BMC Med 2006;4:22.
  • 51
    De Berardis G, Lucisano G, D'Ettorre A et al. Association of aspirin use with major bleeding in patients with and without diabetes. JAMA 2012;307:22862294.
  • 52
    Abraham NS, Hlatky MA, Antman EM et al. ACCF/ACG/AHA. ACCF/ACG/AHA 2010 expert consensus document on the concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors and thienopyridines: A focused update of the ACCF/ACG/AHA 2008 expert consensus document on reducing the gastrointestinal risks of antiplatelet therapy and NSAID use. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;2010(105):25332549.
  • 53
    Li R, Zhang P, Barker LE et al. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent and control diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. Diabetes Care 2010;33:18721894.
  • 54
    Agardh E, Tababat-Khani P. Adopting 3-year screening intervals for sight-threatening retinal vascular lesions in type 2 diabetic subjects without retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2011;34:13181319.
  • 55
    United States Department of Veterans Affairs. VA/DOD clinical practice guidelines: Management of diabetes mellitus in primary care,2010. Available at Accessed September 27, 2012.
  • 56
    Sinclair AJ, Paolisso G, Castro M et al. Rodriguez Mañas L; European Diabetes Working Party for Older People. European Diabetes Working Party for Older People 2011 clinical guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Executive summary. Diabetes Metab 2011;37(Suppl. 3):S27S38.
  • 57
    Laiteerapong N, Karter AJ, Liu JY et al. Correlates of quality of life in older adults with diabetes: The Diabetes & Aging Study. Diabetes Care 2011;34:17491753.
  • 58
    Lu FP, Lin KP, Kuo HK. Diabetes and the risk of multi-system aging phenotypes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e4144.
  • 59
    Punthakee Z, Miller ME, Launer LJ et al. ACCORD Group of Investigators; ACCORD-MIND Investigators. Poor cognitive function and risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: Post hoc epidemiologic analysis of the ACCORD trial. Diabetes Care 2012;35:787793.
  • 60
    Launer LJ, Miller ME, Williamson JD et al. ACCORD MIND investigators. Effects of intensive glucose lowering on brain structure and function in people with type 2 diabetes (ACCORD MIND): A randomised open-label substudy. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:969977.
  • 61
    Cukierman T, Gerstein HC, Williamson JD. Cognitive decline and dementia in diabetes—systematic overview of prospective observational studies. Diabetologia 2005;48:24602469.
  • 62
    Whitmer RA, Karter AJ, Yaffe K et al. Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2009;301:15651572.
  • 63
    Gregg EW, Mangione CM, Cauley JA et al. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Diabetes and incidence of functional disability in older women. Diabetes Care 2002;25:6167.
  • 64
    Gregg EW, Sorlie P, Paulose-Ram R et al. Prevalence of lower-extremity disease in the U.S. adult population ≥ 40 years of age with and without diabetes: 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care 2004;27:15911597.
  • 65
    Richardson JK, Thies SB, DeMott TK et al. Gait analysis in a challenging environment differentiates between fallers and nonfallers among older patients with peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:15391544.
  • 66
    Richardson JK, Thies S, Ashton-Miller JA. An exploration of step time variability on smooth and irregular surfaces in older persons with neuropathy. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2008;23:349356.
  • 67
    Menz HB, Lord SR. St George R, Fitzpatrick RC. Walking stability and sensorimotor function in older people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:245252.
  • 68
    Volpato S, Blaum C, Resnick H et al. Comorbidities and impairments explaining the association between diabetes and lower extremity disability: The Women's Health and Aging Study. Diabetes Care 2002;25:678683.
  • 69
    Volpato S, Leveille SG, Blaum C et al. Risk factors for falls in older disabled women with diabetes: The Women's Health and Aging Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005;60A:15391545.
  • 70
    Schwartz AV, Hillier TA, Sellmeyer DE et al. Older women with diabetes have a higher risk of falls: A prospective study. Diabetes Care 2002;25:17491754.
  • 71
    The American Geriatrics Society. AGS/BGS clinical practice guideline: Prevention of falls in older persons, 2010. Available at Accessed September 27, 2012.
  • 72
    Dailey G. Early and intensive therapy for management of hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther 2011;33:665678.
  • 73
    Fulton MM, Allen ER. Polypharmacy in the elderly: A literature review. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2005;17:123132.
  • 74
    Huang ES, Karter AJ, Danielson KK et al. The association between the number of prescription medications and incident falls in a multi-ethnic population of adult type-2 diabetes patients: The Diabetes and Aging Study. J Gen Intern Med 2010;25:141146.
  • 75
    Nouwen A, Winkley K, Twisk J et al. European Depression in Diabetes (EDID) Research Consortium. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2010;53:24802486.
  • 76
    Lin EH, Katon W, Von Korff M et al. Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care. Diabetes Care 2004;27:21542160.
  • 77
    Katon W, Lyles CR, Parker MM et al. Association of depression with increased risk of dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Diabetes and Aging Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012;69:410417.
  • 78
    Katon WJ, Rutter C, Simon G et al. The association of comorbid depression with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:26682672.
  • 79
    Montorio I, Izal M. The Geriatric Depression Scale: A review of its development and utility. Int Psychogeriatr 1996;8:103112.
  • 80
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vision Health Initiative. Available at Accessed September 27, 2012.
  • 81
    Bainbridge KE, Hoffman HJ, Cowie CC. Diabetes and hearing impairment in the United States: Audiometric evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:110.
  • 82
    Bainbridge KE, Hoffman HJ, Cowie CC. Risk factors for hearing impairment among U.S. adults with diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Diabetes Care 2011;34:15401545.
  • 83
    Miller CKEL, Edwards L, Kissling G et al. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34:252259.
  • 84
    Villareal DT, Banks M, Siener C et al. Physical frailty and body composition in obese elderly men and women. Obes Res 2004;12:913920.
  • 85
    Villareal DT, Banks M, Sinacore DR et al. Effect of weight loss and exercise on frailty in obese older adults. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:860866.
  • 86
    Miller SL, Wolfe RR. The danger of weight loss in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 2008;12:487491.
  • 87
    Shapses SA, Riedt CS. Bone, body weight, and weight reduction: What are the concerns? J Nutr 2006;136:14531456.
  • 88
    Suhl E, Bonsignore P. Diabetes self-management education for older adults: General principles and practical application. Diabetes Spectrum 2006;19:234240.
  • 89
    Park SW, Goodpaster BH, Strotmeyer ES et al. Decreased muscle strength and quality in older adults with type 2 diabetes: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes 2006;55:18131818.
  • 90
    Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N et al. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. N Engl J Med 2011;364:12181229.
  • 91
    Jakicic JM, Jaramillo SA, Balasubramanyam A et al. Look AHEAD Study Group. Effect of a lifestyle intervention on change in cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:305316.
  • 92
    Buman MP, Hekler EB, Haskell WL et al. Objective light-intensity physical activity associations with rated health in older adults. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:11551165.
  • 93
    Lipska KJ, Bailey CJ, Inzucchi SE. Use of metformin in the setting of mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency. Diabetes Care 2011;34:14311437.
  • 94
    Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR et al. Individual sulfonylureas and serious hypoglycemia in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:751755.
  • 95
    Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A patient-centered approach. Position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care 2012;35:13641379.
  • 96
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The management of type 2 diabetes: 2010 NICE guidelines. Available at Accessed September 27, 2012.
  • 97
    American Geriatrics Society. Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;2012(60):616631.
  • 98
    Herman WH, Ilag LL, Johnson SL et al. A clinical trial of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:15681573.
  • 99
    Lee P, Chang A, Blaum C et al. Comparison of safety and efficacy of insulin glargine and neutral protamine hagedorn insulin in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60:5159.
  • 100
    Matyka K, Evans M, Lomas J et al. Altered hierarchy of protective responses against severe hypoglycemia in normal aging in healthy men. Diabetes Care 1997;20:135141.
  • 101
    Bremer JP, Jauch-Chara K, Hallschmid M et al. Hypoglycemia unawareness in older compared with middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32:15131517.
  • 102
    Shorr RI, Ray WA, Daugherty JR et al. Incidence and risk factors for serious hypoglycemia in older persons using insulin or sulfonylureas. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:16811686.
  • 103
    Zammitt NN, Frier BM. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: Pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities. Diabetes Care 2005;28:29482961.
  • 104
    Arias E. United States life tables, 2007. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2011;59:160.
  • 105
    Yourman LC, Lee SJ, Schonberg MA et al. Prognostic indices for older adults: A systematic review. JAMA 2012;307:182192.
  • 106
    Lee SJ, Lindquist K, Segal MR et al. Development and validation of a prognostic index for 4-year mortality in older adults. JAMA 2006;295:801808.
  • 107
    Schonberg MA, Davis RB, McCarthy EP et al. Index to predict 5-year mortality of community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older using data from the National Health Interview Survey. J Gen Intern Med 2009;24:11151122.
  • 108
    Wells BJ, Jain A, Arrigain S et al. Predicting 6-year mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008;31:23012306.
  • 109
    McEwen LN, Kim C, Karter AJ et al. Risk factors for mortality among patients with diabetes: The Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study. Diabetes Care 2007;30:17361741.
  • 110
    Huang ES, Zhang Q, Gandra N et al. The effect of comorbid illness and functional status on the expected benefits of intensive glucose control in older patients with type 2 diabetes: A decision analysis. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:1119.
  • 111
    Kassirer JP. Incorporating patients' preferences into medical decisions. N Engl J Med 1994;330:18951896.
  • 112
    Barry MJ, Edgman-Levitan S. Shared decision making—pinnacle of patient-centered care. N Engl J Med 2012;366:780781.
  • 113
    Montori VM, Gafni A, Charles C. A shared treatment decision-making approach between patients with chronic conditions and their clinicians: The case of diabetes. Health Expect 2006;9:2536.
  • 114
    Huang ES, Gorawara-Bhat R, Chin MH. Self-reported goals of older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:306311.
  • 115
    Huang ES, Brown SE, Ewigman BG et al. Patient perceptions of quality of life with diabetes-related complications and treatments. Diabetes Care 2007;30:24782483.
  • 116
    Brown SE, Meltzer DO, Chin MH et al. Perceptions of quality-of-life effects of treatments for diabetes mellitus in vulnerable and nonvulnerable older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56:11831190.
  • 117
    Tsevat J, Dawson NV, Wu AW et al. Health values of hospitalized patients 80 years or older. HELP Investigators. Hospitalized Elderly Longitudinal Project. JAMA 1998;279:371375.
  • 118
    Traylor AH, Subramanian U, Uratsu CS et al. Patient race/ethnicity and patient-physician race/ethnicity concordance in the management of cardiovascular disease risk factors for patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010;33:520525.
  • 119
    Committee on Understanding Eliminating Racial Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (with CD). In: Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, eds. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003.
  • 120
    Resnick HE, Heineman J, Stone R et al. Diabetes in U.S. nursing homes, 2004. Diabetes Care 2008;31:287288.
  • 121
    Maurer MSBJ, Burcham J, Cheng H. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of falls in elderly residents of a long-term care facility. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005;60A:11571162.
  • 122
    Travis SS, Buchanan RJ, Wang S et al. Analyses of nursing home residents with diabetes at admission. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2004;5:320327.
  • 123
    Dorner B, Friedrich EK; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Individualized nutrition approaches for older adults in health care communities. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:15491553.
  • 124
    Thomas DR, Cote TR, Lawhorne L et al. Dehydration Council. Understanding clinical dehydration and its treatment. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2008;9:292301.
  • 125
    Donoghue C. Nursing home staff turnover and retention: An analysis of national level data. J Appl Gerontol 2010;29:89106.
  • 126
    Feldman SM, Rosen R, DeStasio J. Status of diabetes management in the nursing home setting in 2008: A retrospective chart review and epidemiology study of diabetic nursing home residents and nursing home initiatives in diabetes management. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2009;10:354360.
  • 127
    Pandya N, Thompson S, Sambamoorthi U. The prevalence and persistence of sliding scale insulin use among newly admitted elderly nursing home residents with diabetes mellitus. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2008;9:663669.
  • 128
    Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; American Diabetes Association. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Diabetes Care 2009;32:11191131.
  • 129
    Umpierrez GE, Hellman R, Korytkowski MT et al. Endocrine Society. Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in non-critical care setting: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:1638.
  • 130
    Blaum C, Cigolle CT, Boyd C et al. Clinical complexity in middle-aged and older adults with diabetes: The Health and Retirement Study. Med Care 2010;48:327334.
  • 131
    Laiteerapong NIJ, Iveniuk J, John PM et al. Classification of older adults who have diabetes by comorbid conditions, United States, 2005–2006. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:E100.