Turning for Ulcer ReductioN: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial in Nursing Homes

Authors

  • Nancy Bergstrom PhD, RN,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at, Houston, Houston, Texas
    • Address correspondence to Nancy Bergstrom, School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6901 Bertner Blvd. 5th Floor, Houston, TX 77030. E-mail: nancy.bergstrom@uth.tmc.edu

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  • Susan D. Horn PhD,

    1. International Severity Information Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah
    2. Institute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, Utah
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  • Mary Pat Rapp PhD, RN,

    1. School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at, Houston, Houston, Texas
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  • Anita Stern PhD, RN,

    1. Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Ryan Barrett BS,

    1. International Severity Information Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah
    2. Institute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, Utah
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  • Michael Watkiss BFA

    1. International Severity Information Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah
    2. Institute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, Utah
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  • The copyright line for this article was changed on July 31, 2015 after original online publication.

Abstract

Objectives

To determine optimal repositioning frequency of nursing home (NH) residents at risk for pressure ulcers (PrUs) when cared for on high-density foam mattresses.

Design

Multisite, randomized, clinical trial, known as Turning for Ulcer ReductioN (TURN Study).

Settings

NHs in the United States (n = 20) and Canada (n = 7) using high-density foam mattresses.

Participants

Consenting residents (N = 942) aged 65 and older without PrUs at moderate (scores 13–14) or high (scores 10–12) risk of PrUs according to the Braden Scale.

Intervention

Participants were randomly allocated using risk stratification (moderate vs high) to a repositioning schedule (2, 3, or 4 hour) for 3 weeks. Blinded assessors assessed skin weekly.

Measurements

PrU incidence (coccyx or sacrum, trochanter, heels).

Results

Participants were mostly female (77.6%) and Caucasian (80.5%) and had a mean age of 85.1 ± 7.7. The most common diagnoses were cardiovascular (76.9%) and dementia (72.5%). Nineteen (2.0%) participants developed superficial PrUs. There was no significant difference (Wilcoxon test for ordered categories) in PrU incidence (P = .68) according to repositioning group (2 hour, 8/321, 2.5%; 3 hour, 2/326, 0.6%; 4 hour, 9/295, 3.1%), nor was there a statistically significant difference in the incidence of PrU between the high and moderate-risk groups (P = .79). Also, PrU incidence was not statistically significantly different between high-risk participants based on repositioning schedule (6/325, 1.8%, P = .90) or between moderate-risk participants based on repositioning schedule (13/617, 2.1%, P = .68).

Conclusion

There was no difference in PrU incidence over 3 weeks of observation between those turned at 2-, 3-, or 4-hour intervals in this population of residents using high-density foam mattresses at moderate and high risk of developing PrUs when they were repositioned consistently and skin was monitored. This finding has major implications for use of nursing staff and cost of NH care.

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