Racial and Sex Differences in Associations Between Activities of Daily Living and Cognition in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
© Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume 61, Issue 12, pages 2174–2180, December 2013
How to Cite
J Am Geriatr Soc 61:2174–2180, 2013.
- Issue published online: 12 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
- National Institute on Aging. Grant Number: 3P30AG031054–06S1
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Numbers: R01 AG16062, P30AG031054, 5UL1 RR025777
- National Center for Research Resources
- Research Centers in Minority Institutions. Grant Numbers: G12-RR03034, U54 NS060659
- Deep South Resource Center for Minority Aging Research
- Atlanta Regional Geriatric Educational Center Collaboration Allows for Enhanced Senior Care. Grant Number: UB4HP19215
- activities of daily living;
- instrumental activities of daily living;
- cognitive screening;
- Mini-Mental State Examination;
- sex differences
To examine the association between function measured according to activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activ1ities of daily living (IADLs), and cognition assessed according to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of older African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling men and women.
Cross-sectional study assessing associations between self-reported ADL and IADL difficulty and MMSE scores for race- and sex-specific groups.
Homes of community-dwelling older adults.
A random sample of 974 African-American and non-Hispanic white Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older living in west-central Alabama and participating in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, excluding those with reported diagnoses of dementia or with missing data.
Function, based on self-reported difficulty in performing ADLs and IADLs, and cognition, using the MMSE. Multivariable linear regression models were used to test the association between function and cognition in race- and sex-specific groups after adjusting for covariates.
Mini-Mental State Examination scores were modestly correlated with ADL and IADL difficulty in all four race- and sex-specific groups, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from −0.189 for non-Hispanic white women to −0.429 for African-American men. Correlations between MMSE and ADL or IADL difficulty in any of the race- and sex-specific groups were no longer significant after controlling for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities.
Mini-Mental State Examination was not significantly associated with functional difficulty in older African-American and non-Hispanic white men and women after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities, suggesting a mediating role in the relationship between cognition and function.