The ACTIVE Study Group members are in Appendix A.
Ten-Year Effects of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults
Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014
© 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume 62, Issue 1, pages 16–24, January 2014
How to Cite
J Am Geriatr Soc 62:16–24, 2014.
- Issue online: 17 JAN 2014
- Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014
- National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Nursing Research to Hebrew Senior Life. Grant Number: U01 NR04507
- Indiana University School of Medicine. Grant Number: U01NR04508
- Johns Hopkins University. Grant Number: U01AG14260
- New England Research Institute. Grant Number: U01 AG14282
- Pennsylvania State University. Grant Number: U01 AG14263
- University of Alabama at Birmingham. Grant Number: U01 AG14289
- University of Florida. Grant Number: U01AG14276
- cognitive training;
- cognitive abilities;
- everyday function;
- training maintenance
To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years.
Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE)) with three intervention groups and a no-contact control group.
Six U.S. cities.
A volunteer sample of 2,832 persons (mean baseline age 73.6; 26% African American) living independently.
Ten training sessions for memory, reasoning, or speed of processing; four sessions of booster training 11 and 35 months after initial training.
Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function.
Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (memory: effect size = 0.48, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12–0.84; reasoning: effect size = 0.38, 99% CI = 0.02–0.74; speed of processing: effect size = 0.36, 99% CI = 0.01–0.72). At a mean age of 82, approximately 60% of trained participants, versus 50% of controls (P < .05), were at or above their baseline level of self-reported IADL function at 10 years. The reasoning and speed-of-processing interventions maintained their effects on their targeted cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size = 0.23, 99% CI = 0.09–0.38; speed of processing: effect size = 0.66, 99% CI = 0.43–0.88). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size = 0.21, 99% CI = 0.01–0.41) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size = 0.62, 99% CI = 0.31–0.93).
Each Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years.