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Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Are Positively Associated with Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

Authors

  • Martí Juanola-Falgarona PhD,

    1. Human Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain
    2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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  • Jordi Salas-Salvadó PhD,

    1. Human Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain
    2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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  • Pilar Buil-Cosiales PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Primary Health Care, Servicio Navarro de Salud, Health Care Centre of Azpilagaña, Pamplona, Spain
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  • Dolores Corella PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Ramón Estruch PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Internal Medicine, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Emili Ros PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Montserrat Fitó PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group (Regicor Study Group), Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Javier Recondo MD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Txagorritxu, Vitoria, Spain
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  • Enrique Gómez-Gracia PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
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  • Miquel Fiol PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Institute of Health Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands and Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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  • José Lapetra PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Sevilla, San Pablo Health Center, Sevilla, Spain
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  • Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Lluis Serra-Majem PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain
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  • Xavier Pintó PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Miguel A. Muñoz PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Primary Health Care Division and Research, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
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  • Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Sevilla, Spain
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  • José Alfredo Martínez PhD,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Nutrition and Food Sciences, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
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  • Itandehui Castro-Quezada BSc,

    1. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain
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  • Mònica Bulló PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Human Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain
    2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    • Address correspondence to Mònica Bulló, Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Spain. E-mail: monica.bullo@urv.cat

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  • and on behalf of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea Study Investigators


Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate how glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its features in middle-aged and elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk.

Design

Prospective, longitudinal, population-based cohort.

Setting

PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study.

Participants

Men and women (N = 6,606) divided into three age groups (<65, 65–74, ≥75).

Measurements

Energy and nutrient intake was evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS and its features were defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Results

A positive association was observed between GI and MetS prevalence in the youngest and middle age groups for participants without diabetes mellitus, but no relationship was found for those with diabetes mellitus. During the median follow-up of 4.8 years, higher GI and GL were related to greater risk of MetS in the middle age group, independent of the presence of diabetes mellitus. Changes in dietary GI were associated with risk of developing the high fasting glucose component of the MetS in the oldest age category, and changes in dietary GL were associated with risk of developing abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure in the youngest age category.

Conclusion

Dietary GI and GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical features, with particular age-dependent considerations.

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