Analysis of the secondary endodontic lesions focusing on the extraradicular microorganisms: an overview

Authors

  • Massimo Del Fabbro,

    Corresponding author
    1. Director of Center of Research for Oral Health, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Dental Clinic, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
    • Correspondence

      M. Del Fabbro, Director, Center of Research for Oral Health, Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

      Tel: +39 02 0319950

      Fax: +39 02 50319960

      Email: massimo.delfabbro@unimi.it

    Search for more papers by this author
  • Lakshman P. Samaranayake,

    1. Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Alessandra Lolato,

    1. Dental Clinic, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Tommaso Weinstein,

    1. Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Silvio Taschieri

    1. Center of Research for Oral Health, Head of Section of Endodontics and Implant Dentistry, Dental Clinic, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

The present study aimed at reviewing the literature on extraradicular infections of endodontically treated teeth, summarizing the main hypotheses on etiopathogenesis and describing the most suitable techniques to identify the composition of pathogenic extraradicular microorganisms. Medline database was searched using the keywords “Apical biofilm,” “extraradicular infection,” “secondary endodontic lesion,” “endodontic retreatment,” “biofilm” either alone or combined with AND. A further hand search was performed on the main endodontic journals. The most frequent bacterial species identified in different studies and with different techniques may vary considerably. Although the presence of some species of microorganisms seems to be determinant, the true origin of extraradicular infection is still undetermined. The literature analysis showed marked differences in methodology, materials, aims, and techniques adopted, which led to highly heterogeneous outcomes. The picture emerging from this review is that extraradicular infection is likely a multifactorial disease that requires further systematic investigation using standardized techniques.

Ancillary