• eruption of maxillary canines;
  • etiology of impacted canines;
  • guidance theory;
  • impacted maxillary canine;
  • sequential theory


The position of the permanent maxillary canine at the angle of the mouth is strategically significant in maintaining the harmony and symmetry of the occlusal relationship. However, the maxillary canine is the second most frequently impacted tooth, with prevalence reported to be between 1% and 2%. Moreover, treatment of this condition is often complex and involves substantial time and financial cost. Hence, it is only prudent to monitor the eruption and identify the etiological factors that lead to impaction of the maxillary canine. Numerous researchers have tried to identify specific and nonspecific etiological factors responsible for displacement of canines. The purpose of this review was to track the development processes of maxillary canines and determine the hindrances that affect the eruption at different ages. Awareness of the eruption process and etiology of noneruption will help to reduce the incidence of impacted canines by allowing for early recognition and interceptive treatment.