Individual and organizational factors related to work engagement among home-visiting nurses in Japan
- Conflict of interest: Financial support for this study was provided by the Healthcare Science Institute in Japan. The authors report no conflicts of interest.
The increasing number of elderly people has caused increased demand for home-visiting nurses. Nursing managers should develop healthy workplaces in order to grow their workforce. This study investigated the work engagement of home-visiting nurses as an index of workplace health. The aim of the present study was to reveal factors contributing to work engagement among Japanese home-visiting nurses.
An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was sent to 208 home-visiting nurses from 28 nursing agencies in three districts; 177 (85.1%) returned the questionnaires. The Job Demands–Resources model, which explains the relationship between work environment and employee well-being, was used as a conceptual guide. The authors employed three survey instruments: (i) questions on individual variables; (ii) questions on organizational variables; and (iii) the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Japanese version). Multiple regression analyses were performed in order to examine the relationships between individual variables, organizational variables, and work engagement.
Nurse managers and nurses who felt that there was a positive relationship between work and family had significantly higher work engagement levels than others. The support of a supervisor was significantly associated with work engagement. Nurses in middle-sized but not large agencies had significantly higher work engagement than nurses in small agencies.
Supervisor support and an appropriate number of people reporting to each supervisor are important factors in fostering work engagement among home-visiting nurses.