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References

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    The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Health Care Costs: Key Information on Health Care Costs and Their Impact (May 2012); K. E. Thorpe, L. L. Ogden, and K. Galactionova, “Chronic Conditions Account for Rise in Medicare Spending from 1987 to 2006,”Health Affairs 29, no. 4 (2010): 718–724.
  • 2
    J. M. McGinnis and W. H. Foege, “Actual Causes of Death in the United States,” JAMA 270, no. 18 (1993): 22072212.
  • 3
    Id.
  • 4
    S. A. Schroeder, “We Can Do Better – Improving the Health of the American People,” New England Journal of Medicine 357, no. 12 (2007): 12211228; see McGinnis, supra note 2.
  • 5
    Commission on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization, Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization (August 28 2008), at 1.
  • 6
    National Prevention Council, National Prevention Strategy, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington , D.C. (June 16 2011).
  • 7
    Id., at 7.
  • 8
    D. A. Chokshi and T. A. Farley, “The Cost-Effectiveness of Environmental Approaches to Disease Prevention,” New England Journal of Medicine 367, no. 4 (2012): 295297.
  • 9
    See National Prevention Council, supra note 6, at 18–21.
  • 10
    E. Elhauge, “Why We Should Care about Health Care Fragmentation and How To Fix It,” in E. Elhauge, ed., The Fragmentation of US Healthcare: Causes and Solutions ( New York , NY : Oxford University Press, 2010): at 1–20; A. C. Enthoven, “Integrated Delivery Systems: The Cure for Fragmentation,”American Journal of Managed Care 15, no. 10, Supp. (2009): S284–S290; J. E. Wennberg et al., Improving Quality and Curbing Health Care Spending: Opportunities for the Congress and the Obama Administration, A Dartmouth Atlas White Paper, December 2008, at 4, available at <http://www.dart-mouthatlas.org/downloads/reports/agenda_for_change.pdf> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 11
    42 U.S.C. § 1395jjj (2010).
  • 12
    Accountable Care Organizations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Website, available at <http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/ACO/index.html?redirect=/aco> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 13
    Id., at 12.
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    M. McClellan et al., “A National Strategy to Put Accountable Care into Practice,” Health Affairs 29, no. 5 (2010): 982990, at 982–983.
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    S. Devore and R. W. Champion, “Driving Population Health through Accountable Care Organizations,” Health Affairs 30, no. 1 (2011): 4150, at 42.
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    M. N. Gourevitch et al., “The Challenge of Attribution: Responsibility for Population Health in the Context of Accountable Care,” American Journal of Public Health 102, no. S3 (2012): S322S324; Z. Song et al., “Health Care Spending and Quality in Year 1 of the Alternative Quality Contract,”New England Journal of Medicine 365, no. 10 (2011): 909–918.
  • 17
    “An Act Providing Access to Affordable, Quality, Accountable Healthcare,” Massachusetts Session Law, 2006, Chapter 58.
  • 18
    Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation, “Pioneer ACO Model,” Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Website, available at <http://innovations.cms.gov/initiatives/aco/pioneer/> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 19
    Steward Health Care System Website, “Steward Health Care to Participate as Medicare Pioneer Accountable Care Organization,” available at <http://steward.org/news/Steward-Main/Steward-Health-Care-to-participate-as-Medicare-Pioneer-Accountable-Care-Organization> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 20
    J. Corbett, “Quarterly Analysis of Steward Health Care System Bad Debt,” Community Benefit Advisory Committee Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, October, 2011.
  • 21
    D. Liu, “Community Health Advocate Program,” presentation at the Steward Health Care Community Benefits Advisory Committee quarterly meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, October 9 2012.
  • 22
    National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership Website, “What Is MLP?” available at <http://www.medical-legalpartnership.org/about-us> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 23
    Id.
  • 24
    Steward Health Care System Website, Medical-Legal Partnership, available at<http://steward.org/doc/Page.asp?PageID=DOC003342> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 25
    Id.
  • 26
    Massachusetts Legal Services, “Federal Poverty Guidelines 2012,” available at <http://www.masslegalservices.org/content/federal-poverty-guidelines-2012> (last visited January 25, 2013).
  • 27
    National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership, “Utility Access and Health: A Medical Legal Partnership Patients-to-Policy Case Study,” March 2010, available at <http://www.medical-legalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/page/Utility%20Access%20and%20Health.pdf> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 28
    Id.
  • 29
    Id.
  • 30
    D. Weintraub et al., “Pilot Study of Medical Legal Partnership to Address Social and Legal Needs of Patients,” Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved 21 (2010): 157168.
  • 31
    K. J. Rodabaugh et al., “A Medical Legal Partnership as a Component of a Palliative Care Model,” Journal of Palliative Medicine 13, no. 1 (2010): 1518.
  • 32
    D. Glickman et al., Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation ( Washington , D.C. : The National Academies Press, 2012): at 287.
  • 33
    K. Ayoub, “Is It a Movement? Hospitals Ban Sugar Sweetened Beverages,” FoodService Director, available at <http://www.foodservicedirector.com/operations/articles/it-movement-hospitals-ban-sugar-sweetened-beverages> (last visited January 9, 2013); Steward Health Care System, “St. E's, Boston Hospitals Showcase Success in Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption,”available at <http://steward.org/news/St-Elizabeths/St-Es-Boston-Hospitals-Showcase-Success-in-Reducing-Sugar-Sweetened-Beverage-Consumption> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 34
    Boston Public Health Commission, “Healthy Beverages,” available at <http://www.bphc.org/programs/cib/chronicdisease/healthybeverages/Pages/Home.aspx> (last visited January 9, 2013).
  • 35
    M. Reid., “Healthy Beverage Campaign” presentation at the Steward Health Care Community Benefits Advisory Committee quarterly meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, October 9 2012. All calculations were based on sales data provided by hospital cafeteria managers, and purchasing data provided by system wide drink vendors.
  • 36
    Id., at 35.
  • 37
    Id.