To enhance unclear microscopy mineral images, an algorithm based on toggle operator using opening and closing is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the specified toggle operator using opening and closing through designing the selection rules is analysed. Secondly, after importing the multiscale theory into the specified toggle operator, useful mineral image features, especially the mineral details, are extracted using the multiscale theory-based toggle operator. Finally, the mineral image is enhanced through the strategy of enlarging the contrast between the extracted bright and dark image features. Experimental results on different types of mineral images verified that the proposed algorithm could effectively enhance mineral images and performed better than some other algorithms. The enhanced mineral image is clear and contains rich mineral details, whereas the grey scale distribution of the original mineral image is appropriately maintained. This would be useful for the further mineral analysis. Therefore, the proposed algorithm could be widely used for image-based mineral applications.