• 1
    Boerma JT, Bryce J, Kinfu Y, et al. Mind the gap: Equity and trends in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health services in 54 countdown countries. The Lancet. 2008;371:12591267.
  • 2
    Gwatkin DR, Bhuiya A, Victoria CG. Making health systems more equitable. The Lancet. 2004;364:12731280.
  • 3
    Hooseinpoor AR, Victoria CG, Bergen N, Barros AJ, Boerma JT. Towards universal health coverage: the role of within-country wealth-related inequality in 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011;89:881890.
  • 4
    Houweling T, Ronsmans C, Campbell OM, Kunst AE. Huge poor-rich inequalities in maternity care: An international comparative study of maternity and child care in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85:745754.
  • 5
    Say L, Raine R. A systematic review of inequalities in the use of maternal health care in developing countries: examining the scale of the problem and the importance of context. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85:812819.
  • 6
    Guliani H, Sepehri A, Serieux J. What impact does contact with the prenatal care system have on women's use of facility delivery? Evidence from low-income countries. Social Science & Medicine. 2012;74:18821890.
  • 7
    McTavish S, Moore S, Harper S, Lynch J. National female literacy, individual socio-economic status, and maternal health care use in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science & Medicine. 2010;71:19581963.
  • 8
    Silal SP, Penn-Kekana L, Harris B, Birch S, McIntyre D. Exploring inequalities in access to and use of maternal health services in South Africa. BMC Health Services Research. 2012;12(120):112.
  • 9
    Barros AJ, Ronsmans C, Axelson H, et al. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health interventions in countdown to 2015: A retrospective view of survey data from 54 countries. The Lancet. 2012;379:12251233.
  • 10
    Makoka D. Towards and understanding of regional disparities in social inequities in maternal health in Malawi. African Health Sciences. 2009;9:234241.
  • 11
    Zere E, Kirigia JM, Duale S, Akazili J. Inequities in maternal and child health outcomes and interventions in Ghana. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(252):110.
  • 12
    Paruzzolo S, Mehra R, Kes A, Ashbaugh C. Targeting Poverty and Gender Inequality to Improve Maternal Health. Women Deliver. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women; 2010.
  • 13
    Addai I. Determinants of use of maternal-child health services in rural Ghana. Journal of Biosocial Science. 2000;32:115.
  • 14
    Gabrysch S, Campbell OM. Still too far to walk: Literature review of the determinants of delivery service use. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2009;9(34):118.
  • 15
    Gyimah SO, Takyi BK, Addai I. Challenges to the reproductive health needs of African women: On religion and maternal health in Ghana. Social Science & Medicine. 2006;62:29302944.
  • 16
    Mpembeni RN, Killewo J, Leshabari MT, et al. Use pattern of maternal health services and determinants of skilled care during delivery in Southern Tanzania: implications for achievement of MDG-5 targets. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2007;7(29):17.
  • 17
    Mrisho M, Schellenberg JA, Mushi AK, et al. Factors affecting home delivery in rural Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2007;12:862872.
  • 18
    Spangler SA, Bloom SS. Use of biomedical obstetric care in rural Tanzania: The role of social and material inequalities. Social Science & Medicine. 2010;71:760768.
  • 19
    Stekelenburg J, Kyanamina S, Mukelabai M, Wolffers I, Van Roosmalen J. Waiting too long: Low use of maternal health services in Kalabo, Zambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2004;9:390398.
  • 20
    Stephenson R, Baschieri A, Clements S, Hennink M, Madise N. Contextual influences on the use of health facilities for childbirth in Africa. American Journal of Public Health. 2006;96:8493.
  • 21
    Tann CJ, Kizza M, Morison L, Mabey D. Use of antenatal services and delivery care in Entebbe, Uganda: A community based survey. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2007;7(23):111.
  • 22
    Trani J-F, Browne J, Kett M, et al. Access to care, reproductive health and disability: A large scale survey in Sierra Leone. Social Science & Medicine. 2011;73:14771489.
  • 23
    Kowalewski M, Jahn A, Kimatta SS. Why do at-risk mothers fail to reach referral-level? Barriers beyond distance and cost. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2000;4:100109.
  • 24
    Kyomuhendo GB. Low use of rural maternity services in Uganda: Impact of women's status, traditional beliefs and limited resources. Reproductive Health Matters. 2003;11:1626.
  • 25
    Roth Allen D. Managing Motherhood, Managing Risk. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press; 2004.
  • 26
    Sargent CF. The Cultural Context of Therapeutic Choice: Obstetrical Care Decisions Among the Bariba of Benin. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing Company; 1982.
  • 27
    Spangler SA. “To open oneself is a poor woman's trouble”: Embodied inequality and childbirth in south-central Tanzania. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 2011;25:479498.
  • 28
    Mekonnen Y, Mekonnen A. Factors influencing the use of maternal healthcare services in Ethiopia. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2003;21:374382.
  • 29
    Wilunda C, Putoto G, Manenti F, et al. Measuring equity in utilization of emergency obstetric care at Wolisso Hospital in Oromiya, Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2013;12(27):18.
  • 30
    Wirth M, Sacks E, Delamonica E, et al. “Delivering” on the MDGs? Equity and maternal health in Ghana, Ethiopia, and Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health. 2008;5:133141.
  • 31
    Pearson L, Gandhi M, Admasu K, Keyes EB. User fees and maternity services in Ethiopia. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2011;115:310315.
  • 32
    Kowalewski M, Mujinja P, Jahn A. Can mothers afford maternal health care costs? User costs of maternity services in rural Tanzania. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2002;6:6573.
  • 33
    Kruk ME, Mbaruku G, Rockers PC, Galea S. User fee exemptions are not enough: Out of pocket payments for ‘free’ delivery services in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008;13:14421451.
  • 34
    Perkins M, Brazier E, Themmen E, et al. Out-of-pocket costs for facility-based maternity care in three African countries. Health Policy and Planning. 2009;24:289300.
  • 35
    Singh A, Padmadas SS, Mishra US, et al. Socio-economic inequalities in the use of postnatal care in India. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(5):19.
  • 36
    Fenn B, Kirkwood BR, Popatia Z, Bradley DJ. Inequities in neonatal survival interventions: Evidence from national surveys. Archives of Disease in Childhood; Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 2007;92:3616.
  • 37
    Gwatkin DR, Wagstaff A, Yazbeck AS. Reaching the Poor with Health, Nutrition, and Population Services: What Works, What Doesn't, and Why. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2005.
  • 38
    Ashford LS, Gwatkin DR, Yazbeck AS. Designing Health and Population Programs to Reach the Poor. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau; 2006.
  • 39
    Baqui AH, Rosecrans AM, Williams EK, et al. NGO facilitation of a government community-based maternal and neonatal health programme in rural India: Improvements in equity. Health Policy and Planning. 2008;23:234243.
  • 40
    Mulholland E, Smith L, Carneiro I, Becher H, Lehmann D. Equity and child-survival strategies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008;86:399407.
  • 41
    The Partnership for Maternal Newborn and Child Health, Graham W, Mahendra S. Address inequities. In: Taylor-Made Communications, ed. Knowledge Summary: Women and Children's Health. Geneva, Switzerland: The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health; 2010. p. 4245.
  • 42
    UNICEF. Narrowing the Gaps to Meet the Goals. New York, NY: UNICEF; 2010.
  • 43
    USAID, MCHIP. Considerations for Incorporating Health Equity into Project Designs: a Guide for Communtiy-Oriented Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Projects. Washington, DC: USAID; 2011.
  • 44
    Sibley LM, Tesfaye S, Desta BF, et al. Improving maternal and newborn health care delivery in rural Amhara and Oromiya Regions of Ethiopia through the Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2014;59:S6S20.
  • 45
    Gobezayehu AG, Mohammed H, Dynes MM, et al. Knowledge and skill retention among frontline health workers: Community Maternal and Newborn Health Training in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2014;59:S21S31.
  • 46
    Haines A, Sanders D, Lehmann U, et al. Achieving child survival goals: Potential contribution of community health workers. The Lancet. 2007;369:21212131.
  • 47
    Lassi Z, Haider B, Bhutta ZA. Community-based intervention packages for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and improving neonatal outcomes. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012;(11): CD007754. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007754.pub2.
  • 48
    Nair N, Tripathy P, Prost A, Costello A, Osrin D. Improving newborn survival in low-income countries: community-based approaches and lessons from South Asia. PloS Medicine. 2010;7(4):19.
  • 49
    Rosato M, Laverack G, Grabman LH, et al. Community participation: Lessons for maternal, newborn, and child health. The Lancet. 2008;372:96271.
  • 50
    StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 12. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP; 2011.
  • 51
    Barry D, Frew AH, Mohammed H, et al. The Effect of Community Maternal and Newborn Health family meetings on type of birth attendant and completeness of maternal and newborn care received during birth and the early postnatal period in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2014;59:S44S54.
  • 52
    Tesfaye S, Barry D, Gobezayehu AG, et al. Improving coverage of postnatal care in rural Ethiopia using a community-based, collaborative quality improvement approach. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2014;59:S55S64.
  • 53
    Balen J, McManus DP, Li Y-S, et al. Comparison of two approaches for measuring household wealth via an asset-based index in rural and peri-urban settings of Hunana province, China. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. 2010;7(7):117.
  • 54
    Howe LD, Hargreaves JR, Huttly SR. Issues in the construction of wealth indices for the measurement of socio-economic position in low-income countries. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. 2008;5(3):114.
  • 55
    Smith L, Subandoro A. Measuring Food Security Using Household Expenditure Surveys. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute; 2007.
  • 56
    Bedi T, Coudouel A, Simler K, editors. More than a Pretty Picture: Using poverty Maps to Design Better Policies and Interventions. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank; 2007.
  • 57
    . Dimovska D, Sealy S, Bergkvist S, Pernefeldt H. Innovative Pro-Poor Healthcare Financing and Delivery Models. Washington, DC: Results for Development Institute; 2009.
  • 58
    Braveman PA. Monitoring equity in health and healthcare: A conceptual framework. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2003;21:181192.
  • 59
    Victoria CG, Barros AJ, Axelson H, et al. How changes in coverage affect equity in maternal and child health interventions in 35 countdown to 2015 countries: An analysis of national surveys. The Lancet. 2012;380:11491156.
  • 60
    Bhutta ZA, Reddy KS. Achieving equity in global health: So near and yet so far. JAMA. 2012;307:20352036.