Limited information is available on the identity of antigens targeted by antibodies present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens for CIS and investigate their prognostic potential to predict conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS). We applied serological antigen selection (SAS) to identify antigens interacting with antibodies present in the pooled CSF from four CIS patients, who developed MS. Antibody reactivity towards CIS antigens identified by SAS was tested in CSF and serum from patients with CIS (n = 123/n = 108), MS (n = 65/n = 44), and other (inflammatory) neurological diseases (n = 75/n = 38) as well as in healthy control sera (n = 44). Using SAS, a panel of six novel CIS candidate antigens was identified. CSF antibody reactivity was detected in both CIS and relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. Serum reactivity was significantly increased in CIS and RR-MS as compared with controls (p = 0.03). For two antigens, the frequency of antibody-positive patients was higher in CIS patients who converted to MS as compared with CIS patients without conversion. We identified novel CIS antigens to which antibody reactivity was primarily detected in CIS and RR-MS as compared to controls. Possible prognostic potential could be demonstrated for two antigens.