SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • antidepressant;
  • anxiety/depression;
  • corticosterone;
  • microtubule-stabilizing compound;
  • serotonin/norepinephrine transporters;
  • stress

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of neuronal cytoskeleton in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. In this line, the deletion of STOP/MAP6 (Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide), a microtubule-stabilizing protein, triggers various neurotransmission and behavioral defects, suggesting that STOP knockout (KO) mice could be a relevant experimental model for schizoaffective symptoms. To establish the predictive validity of such a mouse line, in which the brain serotonergic tone is dramatically imbalanced, the effects of a chronic fluoxetine treatment on the mood status of STOP KO mice were characterized. Moreover, we determined the impact, on mood, of a chronic treatment by epothilone D, a taxol-like microtubule-stabilizing compound that has previously been shown to improve the synaptic plasticity deficits of STOP KO mice. We demonstrated that chronic fluoxetine was either antidepressive and anxiolytic, or pro-depressive and anxiogenic, depending on the paradigm used to test treated mutant mice. Furthermore, control-treated STOP KO mice exhibited paradoxical behaviors, compared with their clear-cut basal mood status. Paradoxical fluoxetine effects and control-treated STOP KO behaviors could be because of their hyper-reactivity to acute and chronic stress. Interestingly, both epothilone D and fluoxetine chronic treatments improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice. Such treatments did not affect the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter densities in cerebral areas of mice. Altogether, these data demonstrated that STOP KO mice could represent a useful model to study the relationship between cytoskeleton, mood, and stress, and to test innovative mood treatments, such as microtubule-stabilizing compounds.

Abbreviations used
5-HT

serotonin

HPA

hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

KO

knockout

LTP

long-term potentiation

MAP

microtubule-associated-protein

NE

norepinephrine

NET

norepinephrine transporter

PTP

post-tetanic potentiation

SERT

serotonin transporter

STOP

Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide

WT

wild-type

Schizophrenia and mood disorders are common, chronic, and debilitating psychiatric illnesses, which have a high prevalence, regardless of countries and cultures, and have a considerable socioeconomic cost (Eaton et al. 2008). For example, unipolar major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are ranked first, sixth, and ninth, respectively, in the World Health Organization estimates for disease-related lifetime disabilities, and 2% of humans are affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (Lopez et al. 2006; Mathers and Loncar 2006). Although, the etiology of schizophrenia and mood disorders is yet poorly understood, converging evidence support the view that they can arise from a deficit in cerebral connectivity, synaptic plasticity, and/or neuronal architecture (Mirnics et al. 2001, Frankle et al. 2003, Owen et al. 2005, Schloesser et al. 2008).

Microtubules and microtubule effectors are of fundamental importance to neuronal differentiation and functions. Dysfunctions of the microtubule network have been shown to lead to neurodegenerative diseases and to psychiatric disorders (Gardiner et al. 2011). Recently, it was found that microtubule deregulation and alterations were related to modifications of integrated brain functions both in animal models and in psychiatric diseases. The first evidence for such a role of cytoskeleton disorganization in psychiatric-like characteristics arises from the deletion in mice of the microtubule-stabilizing protein STOP (Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide, Andrieux et al. 2002). Indeed, STOP knockout (KO) mice exhibit abnormalities of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, acetylcholinergic/nicotinic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic neurotransmissions, deficits of neuronal and synaptic plasticity, sensorimotor gating impairment, associated with profound and widespread behavioral defects (Andrieux et al. 2002; Brun et al. 2005; Fradley et al. 2005; Bouvrais-Veret et al. 2007, 2008; Powell et al. 2007; Delotterie et al. 2010; Fournet et al. 2010, 2012; Kajitani et al. 2010). The overall phenotype of STOP KO mice suggests that they represent a relevant experimental model for schizoaffective-like characteristics. Other studies, based on human genetics, also indicate relationship between microtubule-regulatory proteins and mental functions. For example, dysbindin-1 gene mutations have been reported in both schizophrenic (Straub et al. 2002; Benson et al. 2004; Norton et al. 2006) and bipolar patients (Maier 2008; Domschke et al. 2011), and this protein interacts with and regulates microtubules (Talbot et al. 2006). Similarly, mutations in Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene are associated with several psychiatric diseases [schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, depression, and autism (Millar et al. 2000; Ishizuka et al. 2006; Blackwood et al. 2007; Chubb et al. 2008; Kilpinen et al. 2008)] and its product is a multifunctional protein acting on microtubules and microtubule-regulatory proteins (Morris et al. 2003; Kamiya et al. 2006; Taya et al. 2007).

A large portion of psychiatric patients are refractory to therapeutic drugs and, during drug treatments, some symptoms are moderately improved or resistant to the current therapy. For example, antipsychotics do not improve negative symptoms and cognitive deficits (Keefe et al. 2007), in spite of a therapeutic benefit for positive schizophrenia symptoms (Seeman et al. 2006). In addition, some drugs need a delay for their therapeutic action, as in the case of antidepressants that necessitate 3–6 weeks to be active (Blier and Montigny 1994). Finally, most of psychiatric drugs elicit a broad range of undesirable side effects, which often lead patients to cease their treatment. Based on such evidence, there is the need to find innovative targets and develop novel therapeutic drugs. In addition, an essential prerequisite for the suitability of an experimental rodent line to model psychiatric-like symptoms is that some deficits will be improved by current therapy (pharmacological or predictive validity).

In the case of STOP KO mice, chronic treatments by both typical and atypical antipsychotics improve some defects, such as the reduced number of hippocampal synaptic vesicles, the post-tetanic potentiation, and/or the long-term potentiation (PTP and LTP, respectively) deficits, the nursing behavior of STOP KO females, the locomotor hyperactivity, the fragmentous activity, and the social interaction (Andrieux et al. 2002; Brun et al. 2005; Fradley et al. 2005; Delotterie et al. 2010; Merenlender-Wagner et al. 2010). Interestingly, a chronic treatment by epothilone D, a taxol microtubule-stabilizing compound (Kolman 2004; Nettles et al. 2004), also improved some deficits of STOP KO mice. In fact, it reduces the decrease of the hippocampal synaptic number, improves PTP and LTP, and alleviates their disorganized spontaneous activity and maternal care deficit (Andrieux et al. 2006).

We recently show that the deletion of the STOP protein triggers a high imbalance of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, with dramatic consequences (Fournet et al. 2010, 2012). Indeed, STOP KO mice are highly depressed and very less anxious than their WT littermates and exhibit impaired short- and long-term memories and spatial learning. Therefore, we characterized the effects of chronic treatment by fluoxetine, a widely used antidepressant selective for 5-HT reuptake, as well as that of chronic treatment by epothilone D. Both chronic treatments were tested on mood status and cognitive memory of WT and STOP KO mice. Moreover, because of paradoxical responses of chronic control-treated STOP KO mice in some behavioral tasks, we tested their reactivity toward an acute stress. Finally, we measured the effects of fluoxetine and epothilone D chronic treatments on the density of serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in brain areas of mice of both genotypes.

Materials and methods

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

Animals

Homozygous WT and STOP KO mice were obtained by crossing heterozygous C57BL6 STOP with heterozygous 129 SvPas STOP to get inbred C57BL6 × 129 SvPas-F1 mice, and were genotyped as previously described (Andrieux et al. 2002). All mice were kept under standard conditions, under a 12-h light/dark cycle (lights on at 07h30) and allowed to habituate to the animal holding room for at least 1 week prior to use. All experiments were conducted on WT and STOP KO males of the same litters, at 3–5 months of age, in accordance with the European Communities Council directive (86/809/EEC).

Drugs and treatments

Desipramine hydrochloride was purchased from Tocris (Bristol, UK), fluoxetine hydrochloride from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Quentin-Fallavier, France) or Lilly France (Prozac®, Suresnes, France), and epothilone D from GBF (Braunschweig, Germany). [3H]Citalopram (2.22–3.18 TBq/mmol) and [3H]nisoxetine (2.22–3.18 TBq/mmol) were from Perkin Elmer (Orsay, France). [125I]-RIA kit for corticosterone dosages was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Orangeburg, SC, USA).

Epothilone D was diluted in warm water from a 16.67 mg/mL stock solution in dimethyl sulfoxide. Fluoxetine (Prozac®, 280 mg/70 mL) was diluted in tap water. Male mice were housed five per cage, two cages (10 mice) per treatment and per genotype. Six groups of male mice were constituted: control-treated WT and STOP KO mice received, from day 0 and once a week, a peritoneal administration of 0.6% dimethyl sulfoxide (100 μL/10 g body weight) and, from day 7, 12 mg/mL saccharose plus 3.2 μL/mL glycerol in their tap drinking water; epothilone-treated WT and STOP KO mice received, from day 0 and once a week, a peritoneal administration of 1 mg/kg epothilone D (100 μL/10 g body weight) and, from day 7, 12 mg/mL saccharose plus 3.2 μL/mL glycerol in their tap drinking water; fluoxetine-treated WT and STOP KO mice received, from day 0 and once a week, a peritoneal administration of 0.6% dimethyl sulfoxide and, from day 7, 0.05–0.07 mg/mL fluoxetine in their tap drinking water. To adjust the fluoxetine dosage at about 10 mg/kg/day/mouse, the liquid consumption and the body weight were regularly monitored. Behavioral tests were conducted after at least 6 weeks for epothilone D treatment, and 5 weeks for fluoxetine treatment (supplementary data, Figure S1a). Chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments were pursued during all the behavioral studies, but were washed out 1 week before killing.

To study the sensitivity of mice toward acute stress, animals received physiological serum (100 μL/10 g body weight, i.p.) or not (basal), and were tested 30 min later in some tasks.

Behavioral tests

All experiments were conducted between 10h00 and 16h00, in a sound-attenuated test room, where mice were allowed to habituate at least 30 min before the task.

Coat state

The coat state of treated mice was evaluated periodically by a well-trained experimenter blind to genotypes and treatments. Assessment of the coat state took into account the whole body, i.e., fur clogging, cleanness, density, and scars, according to Farley et al. (2012). A score was attributed to each mouse on a scale from 0 (dirty coat) to 20 (bright and clean coat).

Splash test

The splash test, adapted from Yalcin et al. (2008), consisted of squirting a 10% sucrose solution on the dorsal coat of a mouse in its home cage, under 15 lux illumination. After applying sucrose solution, the latency before the first grooming episode and time spent grooming were recorded for 5 min. The score of one epothilone-treated KO mouse, which did not groom, was not taken into account in analysis.

Forced swimming test

The forced swimming test was adapted from Porsolt et al. (1979, supplementary data). Latency before the first episode of immobility, the total duration of immobility, and the number of climbing attempts were recorded for 6 min. The scores of one control- and one epothilone-treated STOP KO mice, which did not exhibit immobility episode, were not taken into account in analysis.

Tail suspension test

Mice were suspended by the tail, using a paper adhesive tape, to a hook in a chamber of the apparatus (Bioseb, Vitrolles, France) under a 15 lux illumination. Their immobility time was automatically recorded during 6 min.

Marble burying test

The marble burying test was adapted from Millan et al. (2001, supplementary data). The number of marbles buried by each mouse was scored every minute for 10 min, and then every 5 min up to 20 min.

Light/Dark Box Test

The apparatus consisted of a box (50 × 30 × 30 cm) divided by an open door providing access to a white illuminated open area (300 lux) and a dark black enclosed area (5 lux). Mice were placed in the center of the dark area and latency to enter in the bright area, the number of visits (with four paws), and the total time spent in the bright area were measured for 9 min.

Spontaneous alternation

This test was performed under 5 lux illumination in a Y-maze (supplementary data). The number and the sequence of visits into the three arms were recorded during 5 min. The score of one fluoxetine-treated WT mouse, which stayed immobile during the 5-min test, was not taken into account in analysis.

Novel object recognition task

This test was conducted in an arena under a 50 lux illumination (supplementary data). After habituation to arena and to objects, each mouse was placed in the center of the arena for 8 min in the presence of four identical new objects (sample phase). Mice were then removed and, after 10 min, returned to the arena during 8 min for the choice phase, with two objects from the sample phase (familiar objects) and two novel identical objects. The times spent to explore novel and familiar objects were recorded. Scores of one control-treated WT, one fluoxetine-treated WT, and one fluoxetine-treated STOP KO mouse, which did not explore objects, were not taken into account in analysis.

Autoradiographic labelings of 5-HT and NE transporters

Labelings of SERT and NET were performed, as detailed in supplementary data, after a 7-day washout of chronic treatments to avoid occupancy of the monoamine transporters by fluoxetine, 5-HT, and/or NE.

Plasma corticosterone measurements

Naïve mice received or not an intraperitoneal administration of physiological serum (100 μL/10 g body weight) and were killed by cervical dislocation 30 min later. Their plasma was immediately harvested and plasma corticosterone level was determined by radioimmunoassay, according to the kit manufacturer's instructions.

Statistical analyses

Data were subjected to factorial one-, two-, three- or four-way anova, with genotype, treatment, area, or object as between-group factors and time as within-group factor. Significant main effects were further analyzed by post hoc comparisons of means using Fisher's or Student's t-test. The parameters of linear regressions were calculated using PRISM 5.0 (GraphPad software, San Diego, CA, USA) For all tests, statistical significance was set at < 0.05.

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

The dose and the duration of chronic treatments by epothilone D and fluoxetine were selected according to previous studies (Fournet et al. 2012; supplementary data). We have chosen to characterize the effects of chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments on three depression and two anxiety tests, as well as on two memory performance tasks, based on the clear-cut basal phenotype of STOP KO mice (Fournet et al. 2012). Moreover, all mice underwent the same series of tests to avoid different stress and environmental effects (supplementary data, Figure S1a).

Fluoxetine intake during chronic treatments (Figure S2)

All along the chronic treatments by epothilone D or fluoxetine, the body weight and the fluid consumption of mice were monitored (Figures S1b and S2, supplementary data). During the test period (41–63 days), the intake of fluoxetine was similar between WT and STOP KO mice (10.6 ± 0.6 and 10.8 ± 0.6 mg/kg/day, respective mean dose, Figure S2b).

Effect of chronic treatments on the depression status

Coat state (Fig. 1a)

The coat state of treated WT and STOP KO males was regularly assessed during the chronic treatments by the same experimenter. Statistical analyses showed significant effects of genotype, treatment, and time (Table S1).

As already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), the coat state of male STOP KO mice was worse than that of WT mice, whatever the treatment (control: −29%, = 0.0002; epothilone D: −21%, = 0.0056; fluoxetine: −39%, < 0.0001, repeated measures). The coat state of control-treated WT mice was aggravated between days 7 and 58 (−46%, = 0.0018), whereas that of control-treated STOP KO mice remained constant. Accordingly, at day 58, the coat state of control-treated WT and STOP KO mice was no longer different.

Epothilone D treatment had no effect on the coat state of both WT and mutant mice. In contrast, chronic fluoxetine significantly improved the coat state of males of both genotypes (WT: +48%, < 0.0001; STOP KO: +28%, = 0.0091; repeated measures; WT: +137%, < 0.0001, KO: +47%, ns; between days 7 and 58). These latter data indicated that chronic fluoxetine was more efficacious to improve the coat state of treated WT than STOP KO mice.

Splash test (Fig. 1b)

Statistical analysis indicated significant effects of genotype and a near-significant effect of treatment on latency to groom, and of genotype and treatment on the grooming duration (Table S1).

As already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), control-treated STOP KO mice displayed an increased careless behavior compared with control-treated mice, characterized by an increased latency to groom (+144%, = 0.0003) and a decreased grooming (−42%, = 0.0038).

Epothilone D treatments had no effect on the grooming of WT and STOP KO mice. However, fluoxetine treatment exerted an antidepressant-like effect on treated STOP KO mice by decreasing the latency (−37%, = 0.0179) and increasing the grooming (+54%, = 0.0038), whereas it had no effect on WT performances. Finally, the grooming performances of fluoxetine-treated STOP KO mice did no longer differ from that of control-treated WT mice.

The significant improvement by fluoxetine treatment of the grooming behavior (coat state and splash test) of STOP KO mice was in agreement with a previous study on unpredictable chronic mild stressed mice (Mutlu et al. 2009).

Forced swimming test (Fig. 1c)

This test was preferred to the tail suspension test as the determination of climbing attempts also provides information about the norepinephrine tonus of treated mice. Statistical analyses showed significant effects of genotype and treatment on the latency, of genotype, treatment, and time on the immobility, and of genotype and time on the climbing (Table S1).

In contrast with a previous study performed in basal conditions (Fournet et al. 2012), the performances of control-treated STOP KO indicated a lesser despair behavior compared with WT mice, exhibiting a decreased immobility (−62%, < 0.0001, repeated measures) and increased climbing attempts (+135%, = 0.0085, repeated measures). On the other hand, and as already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), latency before the first immobility episode of STOP KO mice was lesser than WT mice (−71%, = 0.0014).

Chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments induced helplessness in mice of both genotypes, by decreasing latency of treated WT mice (epothilone: −73%, = 0.0007; fluoxetine: −78%, = 0.0003) and increasing immobility (epothilone-WT: +67%, < 0.0001; epothilone-KO: +123%, = 0.0030; fluoxetine-WT: +34%, = 0.0227; fluoxetine-KO: +400%, < 0.0001). Epothilone D and fluoxetine had no effect on the number of climbing attempts of mice of both genotypes.

Summary

As in basal conditions (Fournet et al. 2012), control-treated STOP KO mice were more depressed than control-treated WT mice in the coat state assessment (up to day 58) and the splash test. In contrast, control-treated mutant mice exhibited less helplessness in the forced swimming test, in disagreement with previously reported basal behaviors (Fournet et al. 2012). Whereas epothilone D had no effect on the depression status of WT and mutant mice, measured by the coat state and the splash test, it worsened performance of mice of both genotypes in the forced swimming test. Fluoxetine chronic treatment had an antidepressant effect on WT and STOP KO mice in the coat state, and on STOP KO mice in the splash test. In contrast, it exhibited a paradoxically pro-depressant effect on WT and STOP KO mice in the forced swimming test.

Effect of chronic treatments on the anxiety status

Marble burying test (Fig. 2a)

Genotype, treatment, and time significantly affected the number of buried marbles (Table S1).

As already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), treated STOP KO mice did not consider marbles as anxiogenic objects, as they buried less marbles than treated WT mice (control: −33%, = 0.0006; epothilone: −38%, < 0.0001, fluoxetine: −100%, ns; repeated measures). Moreover, whereas epothilone D treatment had no effect on the anxiety status of mice, fluoxetine treatment induced a significant anxiolytic effect on mice of both genotypes by decreasing the number of buried marbles (WT: −85%, < 0.0001; STOP KO: −100%, < 0.0001, repeated measures).

Light/dark box test (Fig. 2b)

Statistical analyses indicated significant effects of treatment on the latency before the first visit in the light box, of treatment on the time spent in the light box, of genotype and treatment on the visits in the light box (Table S1).

In contrast with previous results (Fournet et al. 2012), control-treated STOP KO mice did not exhibit a reduced anxiety in this test compared to control-treated WT. Epothilone had no effect on the performance of treated WT mice, whereas it elicited a slight anxiogenic effect on treated STOP KO mice by decreasing their time spent into the light box (−43%, = 0.0201). Fluoxetine treatment clearly exhibited an anxiogenic effect on both genotypes, increasing latency (WT: +216%, = 0.0020; KO: +158%, = 0.0629), decreasing the time spent (WT: −89%, = 0.0012; STOP KO: −77%, < 0.0001) and the visits (WT: −79%, = 0.0059; KO: −66%, = 0.0008) into the light box.

Summary

Control-treated STOP KO mice were less anxious than control-treated WT mice in the marble burying test, as already reported (Fournet et al. 2012). But, in disagreement with their previously reported basal performances, the anxiety-like status of control-treated STOP KO mice was not different from that of control-treated WT mice in the light/dark box test. Whereas epothilone D had little or no effect on the anxious status of WT and mutant mice, fluoxetine elicited, on both mouse lines, an anxiolytic effect in the marble burying test, but an anxiogenic effect in the light/dark box test.

Chronic treatments improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice

Spontaneous alternation (Fig. 3a)

Statistical analyses indicated a significant effect of genotype (but not of treatment) on the total visits in the three arms of the Y maze, and no effect of genotype and treatment on the% spontaneous alternation (Table S1).

As in basal conditions (Fournet et al. 2012), the total number of visits in the three arms of treated STOP KO compared with treated WT mice was significantly increased (control: +45%, = 0.0252; epothilone: +71%, = 0.0007; fluoxetine: +126%, = 0.0001), but the spontaneous alternation was not different between genotypes. Moreover, chronic epothilone and fluoxetine treatments had no effect on the two parameters.

Novel object recognition (Fig. 3b)

Statistical analyses showed significant effects of genotype and treatment on the total object recognition time (novel + familiar) during both the sample (not shown) and the choice tests, and significant effects of object, of genotype x object, and treatment x object interactions on the % time spent with novel and familiar objects (Table S1).

As previously reported (Fournet et al. 2012), the total exploratory time of treated STOP KO compared with treated WT mice was increased (control: +138%, < 0.0001; epothilone: +100%, = 0.0058; fluoxetine: +97%, = 0.0249). Epothilone and fluoxetine treatments had no effect on the exploratory time of WT mice, whereas they decreased the exploratory time of STOP KO mice (epothilone: −23%, = 0.0537; fluoxetine: −42%, = 0.0011).

In agreement with basal performances (Fournet et al. 2012), control-treated WT mice preferred novel objects after a 10-min interval between the sample- and choice-phases (= 0.0050), whereas control-treated STOP KO mice did not. Interestingly, both epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments improved the performances of STOP KO mice to distinguish the novel objects (%Novel different from %Familiar, epothilone: = 0.0004; fluoxetine: = 0.0004).

Summary

Whereas the control-treated STOP KO mice performed as well as control-treated WT mice in the spontaneous alternation test, they failed to distinguish between familiar and novel objects after a 10-min interval, as already reported (Fournet et al. 2012). Epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments had no effect on the spontaneous alternation of mice of both genotypes; however, they improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice and decreased their exploratory activity.

STOP KO mice were hyper-reactive to acute stress (Figs 4 and 5)

The paradoxical behaviors of control-treated STOP KO mice in the forced swimming and light/dark box tests, compared to their performances previously reported in basal conditions (Fournet et al. 2012), prompted us to analyze the effects of acute stress. Naïve male mice received or not an intraperitoneal administration of physiological serum and their depression and anxious performances were characterized 30 min later.

Forced swimming test (Fig. 4a)

Statistical analyses showed significant effects of genotype and stress on latency, of genotype, stress, and time on the immobility time and on the climbing attempts (Table S2).

According to previous study (Fournet et al. 2012), non-injected STOP KO mice displayed a despair-like behavior compared with WT mice, characterized by decreased latency (−56%, < 0.0001), more immobility (+29%, = 0.0042, repeated measures), and less climbing attempts (−77%, < 0.0001, repeated measures).

Whereas the saline injection had no effect on the overall behavior of WT mice, it affected significantly the behavior of STOP KO mice, which became less depressed. Indeed, saline administration decreased immobility (−46%, < 0.0001, repeated measures), increased climbing attempts (+362%, < 0.0001, repeated measures), but was without effect on latency.

Tail suspension test (Fig. 4b)

Genotype and stress had significant effects on the immobility time (Table S2). As already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), non-injected STOP KO mice displayed a depression-like behavior, being more immobile than WT mice (+59%, = 0.0024). Whereas the acute stress had no effect on the immobility of WT mice, it reversed the depression status of STOP KO mice, by decreasing the immobility of mutant males (−60%, < 0.0001), so that it became significantly shorter than the one of saline-treated WT mice (−40%, = 0.0295).

Light/dark box test (Fig. 4c)

Statistical analyses indicated significant effects of the genotype x stress interaction on latency, of genotype and stress on the time spent and the visits in the light box (Table S2).

According to previous study (Fournet et al. 2012), non-injected STOP KO mice displayed a less anxious-like behavior than WT mice, with decreased latency before the first entry in the light box (−59%, = 0.0067), increased time spent (+99%, < 0.0001) and visits (+142%, < 0.0001) into the light box. The acute stress had no effect on the behavior of WT mice, whereas it had an anxiogenic effect on STOP KO mice, by increasing latency (+117%, = 0.0314) and decreasing both time and visits (time: −52%, < 0.0001; visits: −50%, < 0.0001). Finally, the performances of saline-treated mutant mice were no longer different from that of WT mice.

Plasma corticosterone levels (Fig. 5)

Accordingly, we measured the plasma corticosterone in basal conditions or 30 min after saline administration to naïve WT and STOP KO males. Genotype and stress had significant effects on the corticosterone level (Table S2).

In basal conditions, the plasma corticosterone level of STOP KO mice was higher (+83%, = 0.0003) than that of WT mice. Saline administration induced, 30 min later, a significant increase of plasma corticosterone levels in mice of both genotypes (WT: +159%, < 0.0001; KO: +59%, < 0.0001), and the corticosterone level was no longer different between saline-treated WT and mutant mice. Accordingly, the % stress-induced corticosterone increase was significantly lower in saline-treated STOP KO than in WT mice (< 0.0001).

Summary

The acute stress of STOP KO mice elicited an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming and the tail suspension test, and an anxiogenic-like effect in the light/dark box test, whereas it had no effect on WT mouse performances. These results showed that acutely stressed STOP KO mice behaved in the same manner as chronic control-treated mutants in these tests. Moreover, based on their plasma corticosterone level, STOP KO mice were more stressed than WT mice in basal conditions, but were hyporeactive to saline administration stress.

Chronic treatments had no effect on SERT and NET densities (Fig. 5b, Tables S3–S4)

To tentatively explain the effects of chronic treatments, we measured the density of SERT and NET in various brain areas of treated WT and STOP KO mice. Genotype and area (but not treatment) had significant effects on the SERT and NET densities (Table S1).

As already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), parallel marked variations of SERT (Table S3) and NET (Table S4) densities were noted in control-treated STOP KO mice, with increases in the monoaminergic somas and decreases in all the projections areas. Interestingly, epothilone D and fluoxetine chronic treatments had no effect in the density of SERT and NET in all tested areas in mice of both genotypes, suggesting that the behavioral effects of chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments are not mediated by changes in SERT and NET densities.

The variations of SERT and NET densities in STOP KO mice, expressed as % of respective WT values, were highly correlated in basal conditions (Fournet et al. 2012) and after control treatment (Fig. 5b; SERT: F(1,20) = 669.0, < 0.0001; NET: F(1,24) = 268.0, < 0.0001). But, whereas the slope of the linear regression for NET was not different from 1, the slope for SERT correlation was significantly higher than 1 (1.170 ± 0.045, < 0.001). This result indicated that the chronic stress, induced by weekly drug administrations and numerous handlings, aggravated the disequilibrium of the 5-HT network of STOP KO mice by 17%, while it was inactive on the NE tone.

image

Figure 1. Effects of chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments on the depression-like status. (a) Coat state. Data represent the means ± SEM of scores of 10 wild-type (WT) and Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) knockout (KO) males treated by vehicle (C), epothilone D (E) from day 1, and fluoxetine (F) from day 7. (b) Splash test. Means ± SEM of the latency time before the first grooming and of the grooming duration for 10 control-, epothilone D-, and fluoxetine-treated WT and 10 control-, 9 epothilone D-, and 10 fluoxetine-treated STOP KO males. (c) Forced swimming test. Means ± SEM of latency to immobilize, immobility duration, and climbing attempts for 10 control-, epothilone D-, and fluoxetine-treated WT and 9 control-, 9 epothilone D-, and 10 fluoxetine-treated STOP KO males. Post hoc Fisher's test: *< 0.050, **< 0.010, ***<0.001, comparison between genotypes; #< 0.050, ##< 0.010, ###< 0.001, comparison between treatments; $$$< 0.001, effect of time.

Download figure to PowerPoint

image

Figure 2. Effects of chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments on the anxiety-like status. (a) Marble burying test. Means ± SEM of the number of marbles buried by 10 control-, epothilone D-, and fluoxetine-treated wild-type (WT) and Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) knockout (KO) males. (b) Light/dark box test. Means ± SEM of latency before the first visit, the time spent, and of the visit number in the light box of 10 control-, epothilone D-, and fluoxetine-treated WT and STOP KO males. Post hoc Fisher's test: ***< 0.001, comparison between genotypes; #< 0.050, ##< 0.010, ###< 0.001, comparison between treatments.

Download figure to PowerPoint

image

Figure 3. Effects of chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments on the memory performances. (a) Spontaneous alternation test. Means ± SEM of the total number of visits in the three arms of the Y-maze and on the % spontaneous alternation of 10 control-, 10 epothilone D-, and 9 fluoxetine-treated wild-type (WT) and 10 control-, epothilone D-, and fluoxetine-treated Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) knockout (KO) males. (b) Novel object recognition task. Means ± SEM of the total time spent to explore the four objects in the sample test and of the % time to explore the novel objects in the choice test by 9 control-, 10 epothilone D-, and 9 fluoxetine-treated WT and by 10 control-, 10 epothilone D-, and 9 fluoxetine-treated STOP KO males. Post hoc Fisher's test: *< 0.050, **< 0.010, ***< 0.001, comparison between genotypes; $= 0.054, ##< 0.010, comparison between treatments. Student's t-test: < 0.050, ‡‡< 0.010, ‡‡‡< 0.001, comparison between the novel (N) and familiar (F) objects.

Download figure to PowerPoint

image

Figure 4. Effects of acute stress on the depression- and anxiety-like status. In all tests, naïve male mice received an intraperitoneal administration of saline (Sal) or not (Bas), 30 min before testing. (a) Forced swimming test. Means ± SEM of latency before the first immobility episode, immobility time, and climbing attempts of 11 basal and 10 saline-treated wild-type (WT) and of 12 basal and 9 saline-treated Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) knockout (KO) males. (b) Tail suspension test. Means ± SEM of immobility time of 12 basal and saline-treated WT and of 12 basal and 10 saline-treated STOP KO males. (c) Light/Dark box test. Means ± SEM of latency before the first visit, the time spent and the number of visits in the light box by 11 basal and saline-treated WT, and 11 basal and 9 saline-treated STOP KO males. Post hoc Fisher's test: *< 0.050, **< 0.010, ***< 0.001, comparison between genotypes; #< 0.050, ###< 0.001, comparison between treatments.

Download figure to PowerPoint

image

Figure 5. Effect of stress on corticosterone, serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) levels. (a) Naïve wild-type (WT) and Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) knockout (KO) males received an intraperitoneal administration of saline (Sal) or not (Bas), 30 min before killing. Left: means ± SEM of plasma corticosterone levels in 6 mice per genotype and treatment. Right: means ± SEM of the stress-induced corticosterone increase, expressed as % of respective basal values. Post hoc Fisher's test: ***< 0.001, comparison between genotypes; ###< 0.001, comparison between treatments. (b) Correlation of SERT and NET density in various areas of STOP KO mice, in basal condition (Fournet et al. 2012) and after chronic stress (control treatment).

Download figure to PowerPoint

Compared effects of acute and chronic stress and of chronic fluoxetine on the mood of WT and STOP KO males (Tables 1–S5)

The performances of STOP KO versus WT males in depressed-like and anxiety-like paradigms were compared in basal conditions, as already reported (Fournet et al. 2012), after acute stress because of saline administration and chronic stress because of vehicle (control)-treatment (this study). The effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment were also compared on WT and STOP KO mood status. Statistical analyses were depicted in Table S2.

Acute stress had no effect on the WT male mood. In contrast, acute stress of STOP KO males reversed (improved) their depression status in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests and reversed (aggravated) their anxiety status in the light/dark box.

Chronic stress worsened the coat state of WT males, which became equally depressed than STOP KO mice. It had no or variable (depending on the parameter) effect on the splash test and the forced swimming tests in WT males. It improved the anxiety status of WT mice in the marble burying test, but had no effect on their performances in the light/dark box. Chronic stress elicited no effect on the coat state of STOP KO mice, an antidepressant effect on the splash test and the forced swimming test. It had no effect on the anxiety status of STOP KO mice in the marble burying test, but reversed (aggravated) their performances in the light/dark box.

Compared with chronic stress, chronic fluoxetine treatment improved the coat state of mice of both genotypes, with a higher effect on WT than on STOP KO males. It had no effect on WT mice in the splash test, a slightly aggravating effect on their performances in the forced swimming test, an anxiolytic effect on the marble burying test, but an anxiogenic effect on the performances of WT mice in the light/dark box test. Chronic fluoxetine improved the behavior of STOP KO mice in the splash test, but aggravated their depression status in the forced swimming test. Moreover, chronic fluoxetine treatment improved the anxiety status of STOP KO males in the marble burying test, but aggravated their performances in the light/dark box test.

In summary, STOP KO males were hyperreactive to acute stress and differentially sensitive to chronic stress in the different behavioral tests used. Furthermore, the two tests in which the performances of STOP KO males were inversed by acute and chronic stress, compared with basal conditions, were those in which chronic fluoxetine exerted a paradoxical aggravating effect both in WT and STOP KO mice, i.e., pro-depressant in the forced swimming test and anxiogenic in the light/dark box test.

Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

The effects on STOP KO mice of a chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a selective SERT inhibitor, could not be foreseeable, because of the dramatic decrease of SERT density in all brain projection areas of these mice (Fournet et al. 2010, 2012). However, our present study indicated that fluoxetine treatment exerted some effects on the mood of mutant mice. Indeed, chronic treatment by fluoxetine either improved or worsened the depression- and anxiety status of mutant mice. Control-treated STOP KO mice also exhibited paradoxical behaviors, compared with their basal status (Fournet et al. 2010). We hypothesized that the peculiar behavior of control-treated STOP KO mice, as well as the aggravating effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment, were triggered by an altered sensitivity of mutants to stress. Indeed, stress is believed to be a causal factor in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, especially in mood disorders (McEwen 2003). Accordingly, we showed that acutely stressed STOP KO mice displayed a less depressed and more anxious status in some tests, in disagreement with their basal status. Mutant mice also exhibited enhanced plasma corticosterone level, but decreased stress-induced corticosterone stimulation. Worthy of note, our data demonstrated that both epothilone D and fluoxetine chronic treatments improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice in the novel object recognition task. Finally, neither fluoxetine, nor epothilone D effects were because of variations of SERT and NET densities in the various brain areas tested.

Paradoxical effects of fluoxetine on the mood status of STOP KO mice

We recently demonstrated that STOP KO mice exhibited high variations in SERT density, which increase in 5-HT somas and highly decrease in all the projection areas, triggering dramatic consequences on mood (Fournet et al. 2010, 2012). Actually, STOP KO mice displayed a clear-cut mood in basal conditions, i.e., a depressed and less anxious status. Our present data demonstrated that fluoxetine treatment triggered effects on the mood status of STOP KO mice, in spite of the high disequilibrium of their 5-HT tone.

However, whereas chronic fluoxetine treatment clearly improved the grooming behavior of STOP KO mice, tested by the coat state and the splash test, it elicited a paradoxical response of mutant mice in the forced swimming test, another standardized paradigm for the assessment of despair behavior. Indeed, chronic fluoxetine treatment of STOP KO mice worsened their depressed status, by increasing their immobility time and decreasing (although not significantly) their climbing attempts and latency. The same paradoxical effect of fluoxetine was also found in the forced swimming test after an acute treatment of STOP KO mice (Fournet and Martres, unpublished observations). In the same manner, chronic fluoxetine treatment elicited an anxiolytic effect on STOP KO mice in the marble burying test, but an anxiogenic effect in the light/dark box test, by decreasing the time spent and number of visits in the light box of mutants. These paradoxical effects of chronic fluoxetine could unlikely be because of the fluoxetine dosage selected for chronic treatment. The relatively low dose of fluoxetine was chosen according to its acute effect on the tail suspension test (Fournet et al. 2012). At the dose of 10 mg/kg, fluoxetine had no effect on the immobility of WT mice, whereas it significantly decreased the immobility of STOP KO mice. Also, the aggravating effects of fluoxetine were not because of opposite effects on WT mice, as fluoxetine parallely affected mood of WT and STOP KO mice in these tests.

Interestingly, the two tests upon which chronic fluoxetine exerted a paradoxical effect, i.e., pro-depressant in the forced swimming test and anxiogenic in the light/dark box test, were also those in which control-treated STOP KO mice responded in a paradoxical manner.

Mutant mice were hyper-reactive to acute stress and not tolerant to chronic stress

Although STOP KO mice clearly exhibited a highly depressed status and decreased anxiety status on a series of different tests (Fournet et al. 2012), they exhibited paradoxical responses to some despair and anxiety tests after chronic treatment with vehicle (control-treated). For example, they displayed a depressed-like behavior in the splash test, but they were less depressed than control-treated WT mice in the forced swimming test. In the same manner, whereas control-treated STOP KO were lesser anxious in the marble burying test than WT mice, they were equally anxious in the light/dark box test. However, such an inverted behavior of STOP KO mice was not because of changes in the mood status of control-treated WT mice. Indeed, control treatment of WT mice had variable effects in the forced swimming and no effect in the light/dark box. Accordingly, these opposite behaviors of mutant mice prompted us to test the effects of an acute stress on their mood.

We showed that STOP KO mice were hyper-reactive to acute stress, contrasting with WT mice. In fact, an acute mild stress, induced by a peritoneal administration of saline 30 min before testing, could reverse both the depressed and the less anxious phenotype of STOP KO mice in selected tests. Acute stress exerted an antidepressant effect in mutant mice in the forced swimming and in the tail suspension tests, compared with basal (non-injected) conditions. In the same manner, acute stress had an anxiogenic effect on STOP KO mice in the light/dark box test. This hyper-reactivity of STOP KO mice to acute mild stress has already been reported on their locomotor activity (Brun et al. 2005; Fradley et al. 2005; Begou et al. 2007). In addition, our data suggested that STOP KO mice were not tolerant to chronic stress, as acute and chronic vehicle administration induced the same inverted effects on their mood (see Tables 1 and S5).

Table 1. Compared effects of acute stress, chronic stress, and chronic fluoxetine on the mood status of WT and STOP KO malesThumbnail image of

The corticosterone plasma level in basal conditions was elevated in STOP KO mice compared with WT, indicating that mutant mice were more stressed than their WT littermates. However, 30 min after saline administration, the increase in corticosterone level, expressed as percent of respective basal levels, was significantly lower in STOP KO than in WT mice. This suggests that the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in mutant mice may be desensitized, possibly as a consequence of a chronic state of stress. Moreover, the HPA axis being excitated by both noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmissions (Herman et al. 2003; Lanfumey et al. 2008), the decreased levels of 5-HT and NE found in projection areas of STOP KO (Fournet et al. 2012) could under-regulate the HPA axis.

Such a desensitization of the HPA axis in mutant mice was in disagreement with their behavioral hyper-reactivity to acute and chronic stress. An explanation of this discordance will be that the tests chosen to characterize the effect of stress, i.e., the forced swimming, tail suspension, and light/dark box tests, triggered a significantly higher additional stress and that the HPA axis in mutant mice, whereas desensitized to mild stress, was hyper-reactive to higher stress. Another explanation will be that the stress induced by these behavioral tests will imply different molecular pathways from those dependent of the HPA axis.

The parallelism between the paradoxical effects of fluoxetine and the paradoxical behaviors of control-treated STOP KO mice suggested that both chronic fluoxetine treatment and chronic stress acted by the same molecular mechanism(s). Finally, as only some tests were sensitive to stress, whereas other were not, it appears to be necessary to use a battery of tests to characterize the depression and anxiety status of mutant mice as STOP KO mice, to avoid stress artifacts.

Chronic epothilone D had little if any effect on the mood of STOP KO mice

The chronic treatment by epothilone D, a microtubule-stabilizing taxol analog—used in cancerology, which can cross the blood–brain barrier—only marginally affected the mood of STOP KO mice and had no effect on the mood of WT mice. It acted as a pro-depressant on the immobility time of mutant mice in the forced swimming test and as an anxiolytic compound on the time spent by STOP KO mice in the light/dark box. It had no effect on all other parameters and tests. The administered dose and the duration of the chronic treatment by epothilone D were selected according to previous study (Andrieux et al. 2006) and to Andrieux and Schweitzer (personal communication). Indeed, after 8-week treatment of STOP KO mice, 0.3–3 mg/kg/week epothilone D has been shown to be efficacious on some deficits and ineffective on others (Andrieux et al. 2006).

Nevertheless, the absence of notable effects of chronic epothilone D treatment on the mood of WT and STOP KO mice suggests that administration of this microtubule-stabilizing drug in adult mice could not have a direct impact on the 5-HT and the NE neurotransmissions and/or the HPA axis.

Both epothilone D and fluoxetine improved short-term memory of STOP KO mice

Very interestingly, we showed that chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice in the novel object recognition task. We previously showed that STOP KO mice exhibit preserved very short-term memory in the spontaneous alternation test, but impaired short- and long-term memories in the novel object recognition task, as well as learning and memory in the Morris watermaze test (Bouvrais-Veret et al. 2007; Fournet et al. 2012). In this work, control-treated STOP KO mice did not distinguish between the familiar and the novel objects after a time interval of 10 min, as in basal conditions. Very interestingly, they were able to preferentially explore novel objects after chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments.

Up to date, the only reports of a beneficial role of epothilone D or B on spatial learning and memory are on mouse models of tauopathy (Brunden et al. 2010; Barten et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2012). In these studies, the cognitive improvement of the taxol derivatives is associated with increased microtubule density, axonal integrity, and decreased microtubule hyperdynamic. Such a relation between microtubule-targeting drugs and cognitive function is also found with the octapeptide NAP, a neuronal tubulin-preferring agent, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (Matsuoka et al. 2008), or in heterozygous STOP mice (Merenlender-Wagner et al. 2010). In our case, the improvement of short-term memory of STOP KO mice by chronic epothilone D could be because of its beneficial effects on hippocampal synaptic number deficit, on post-tetanic and long-term potentiation defects and on their disorganized spontaneous activity (Andrieux et al. 2006).

Various neuropsychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, elicited impaired memory and cognitive functions (Levkovitz et al. 2002; Gallassi et al. 2006; Mostert et al. 2008). Thus, the effect of antidepressant therapy has been currently studied on a large scale of cognitive deficits, both in animal models and in human patients. Various studies reported the efficiency of chronic fluoxetine treatment on memory and learning deficits in several experimental mouse models: in two depressed models (learned helplessness and chronic mild stress, Song et al. 2006), in mice with ischemic stroke in hippocampus (Li et al. 2009) and in transgenic mice modeling the Down's syndrome (Bianchi et al. 2010). Interestingly, others showed that chronic fluoxetine treatment could decrease acetylated alpha-tubulin, indicating increased microtubule dynamics in rat hippocampus (Bianchi et al. 2009). Finally, fluoxetine therapy has positive effects regarding the cognitive impairments of depressed patients (Austin et al. 2001, Porter et al. 2003, Weiland-Fiedler et al. 2004, Gallassi et al. 2006), Alzheimer's patients (Mowla et al. 2007), or after traumatic brain injury (Horsfield et al. 2002).

Chronic treatments had no effect on SERT and NET densities

The various effects of chronic epothilone D and fluoxetine treatments were not associated with consequences on the density of SERT and NET, following a 7-day washout. However, we have not measured their uptake activity. Because of the delayed onset of clinical efficacy of antidepressant therapy in mood disorders, the adaptive processes in 5-HT neurotransmission to such treatments have been extensively studied. However, most works have focused on 5-HT receptor sensitivity. The consequences of prolonged antidepressant treatments on the SERT density are often controversial. For example, chronic administration of 2–10 mg/kg/day fluoxetine during 21 days induces either increase, or decrease, or has no effect on SERT brain density (Pineyro and Blier 1999; Benmansour et al. 2002; Hirano et al. 2005). Taken together, these data indicate that adaptive responses of SERT to chronic fluoxetine treatment are not correlated with antidepressant effects.

Interestingly, we found that the % variations of SERT and NET in both basal conditions and after control treatment were highly correlated in various brain areas of STOP KO mice. However, the slope of the linear regression in the case of SERT was significantly higher from 1, suggesting that the chronic mild stress induced by the control treatment exacerbated the 5-HT imbalance of STOP KO mice, whereas it was without consequence on the NE tone.

Conclusion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

Stress and antidepressant actions are highly related. Accordingly, mice devoid of the STOP protein, which are pertinent for some schizoaffective-like symptoms, can constitute an original model to study such inter-relations between microtubular network, stress, and mood disorders. They can be also useful to test innovative therapeutics, as those associating antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs with microtubule-stabilizing taxol analogs to alleviate some symptoms resistant to current therapy.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

The authors wish to thank Gbassay Serra for her helpful improvement of our manuscript, Johanne Germain for her expertise in the evaluation of mouse coat state, Dominique Divers for genotyping and Nicolas Damoinet for his technical assistance. This study was supported by grants from INSERM and Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Gaetan de Lavilléon is the recipient of fellowships from the MENESR (France). The authors reported no biomedical financial interest or potential conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information
  • Andrieux A., Salin P. A., Vernet M. et al. (2002) The suppression of brain cold-stable microtubules in mice induces synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders. Genes Dev. 16, 23502364.
  • Andrieux A., Salin P., Schweitzer A. et al. (2006) Microtubule stabilizer ameliorates synaptic function and behavior in a mouse model for schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 60, 12241230.
  • Austin M. P., Mitchell P. and Goodwin G. M. (2001) Cognitive deficits in depression: possible implications for functional neuropathology. Br. J. Psychiatry 178, 200206.
  • Barten D. M., Fanara P., Andorfer C. et al. (2012) Hyperdynamic microtubules, cognitive deficits, and pathology are improved in Tau transgenic mice with low doses of microtubule-stabilizing agent BMS-241027. J. Neurosci. 32, 71377145.
  • Begou M., Brun P., Bertrand J. B., Job D., Schweitzer A., D'Amato T., Saoud M., Andrieux A. and Suaud-Chagny M. F. (2007) Post-pubertal emergence of alterations in locomotor activity in stop null mice. Synapse 61, 689697.
  • Benmansour S., Owens W. A., Cecchi M., Morilak D. A. and Frazer A. (2002) Serotonin clearance in vivo is altered to a greater extent by antidepressant-induced downregulation of the serotonin transporter than by acute blockade of this transporter. J. Neurosci. 22, 67666772.
  • Benson M. A., Sillitoe R. V. and Blake D. J. (2004) Schizophrenia genetics: dysbindin under the microscope. Trends Neurosci. 27, 516519.
  • Bianchi M., Shah A. J., Fone K. C., Atkins A. R., Dawson L. A., Heidbreder C. A., Hows M. E., Hagan J. J. and Marsden C. A. (2009) Fluoxetine administration modulates the cytoskeletal microtubular system in the rat hippocampus. Synapse 63, 359364.
  • Bianchi P., Ciani E., Guidi S., Trazzi S., Felice D., Grossi G., Fernandez M., Giuliani A., Calza L. and Bartesaghi R. (2010) Early pharmacotherapy restores neurogenesis and cognitive performance in the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome. J. Neurosci. 30, 87698779.
  • Blackwood D., Pickard B., Thomson P., Evans K., Porteous D. and Muir W. (2007) Are some genetic risk factors common to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression ? Evidence from DISC1, GRIK4 and NRG1. Neurotox. Res. 11, 7383.
  • Blier P. and de Montigny C. (1994) Current advances and trends in the treatment of depression. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 15, 220226.
  • Bouvrais-Veret C., Weiss S., Andrieux A., Schweitzer A., McIntosh J. M., Job D., Giros B. and Martres M. P. (2007) Sustained increase of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and choline-induced improvement of learning deficit in STOP knock-out mice. Neuropharmacology 52, 16911700.
  • Bouvrais-Veret C., Weiss S., Hanoun N., Andrieux A., Schweitzer A., Job D., Hamon M., Giros B. and Martres M. P. (2008) Microtubule-associated STOP protein deletion triggers restricted changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. J. Neurochem. 104, 745756.
  • Brun P., Begou M., Andrieux A., Mouly-Badina L., Clerget M., Schweitzer A., Scarna H., Renaud B., Job D. and Suaud-Chagny M. F. (2005) Dopaminergic transmission in STOP null mice. J. Neurochem. 94, 6373.
  • Brunden K. R., Zhang B., Carroll J. et al. (2010) Epothilone D improves microtubule density, axonal integrity, and cognition in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy. J. Neurosci. 30, 1386113866.
  • Chubb J. E., Bradshaw N. J., Soares D. C., Porteous D. J. and Millar J. K. (2008) The DISC locus in psychiatric illness. Mol. Psychiatry 13, 3664.
  • Delotterie D., Ruiz G., Brocard J., Schweitzer A., Roucard C., Roche Y., Suaud-Chagny M. F., Bressand K. and Andrieux A. (2010) Chronic administration of atypical antipsychotics improves behavioral and synaptic defects of STOP null mice. Psychopharmacology 208, 131141.
  • Domschke K., Lawford B., Young R., Voisey J., Morris C. P., Roehrs T., Hohoff C., Birosova E., Arolt V. and Baune B. T. (2011) Dysbindin (DTNBP1)–a role in psychotic depression? J. Psychiatr. Res. 45, 588595.
  • Eaton W. W., Martins S. S., Nestadt G., Bienvenu O. J., Clarke D. and Alexandre P. (2008) The burden of mental disorders. Epidemiol. Rev. 30, 114.
  • Farley S., Dumas S., El Mestikawy S. and Giros B. (2012) Increased expression of the Vesicular Glutamate Transporter-1 (VGLUT1) in the prefrontal cortex correlates with differential vulnerability to chronic stress in various mouse strains: effects of fluoxetine and MK-801. Neuropharmacology 62, 503517.
  • Fournet V., Jany M., Fabre V. et al. (2010) The deletion of the microtubule-associated STOP protein affects the serotonergic mouse brain network. J. Neurochem. 115, 15791594.
  • Fournet V., Schweitzer A., Chevarin C., Deloulme J. C., Hamon M., Giros B., Andrieux A. and Martres M. P. (2012) The deletion of STOP/MAP6 protein in mice triggers highly altered mood and impaired cognitive performances. J. Neurochem. 121, 99114.
  • Fradley R. L., O'Meara G. F., Newman R. J., Andrieux A., Job D. and Reynolds D. S. (2005) STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice exhibit deficits in sensorimotor gating. Behav. Brain Res. 163, 257264.
  • Frankle W. G., Lerma J. and Laruelle M. (2003) The synaptic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuron 39, 205216.
  • Gallassi R., Di Sarro R., Morreale A. and Amore M. (2006) Memory impairment in patients with late-onset major depression: the effect of antidepressant therapy. J. Affect. Disord. 91, 243250.
  • Gardiner J., Overall R. and Marc J. (2011) The microtubule cytoskeleton acts as a key downstream effector of neurotransmitter signaling. Synapse 65, 249256.
  • Herman J. P., Figueiredo H., Mueller N. K., Ulrich-Lai Y., Ostrander M. M., Choi D. C. and Cullinan W. E. (2003) Central mechanisms of stress integration: hierarchical circuitry controlling hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical responsiveness. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 24, 151180.
  • Hirano K., Seki T., Sakai N., Kato Y., Hashimoto H., Uchida S. and Yamada S. (2005) Effects of continuous administration of paroxetine on ligand binding site and expression of serotonin transporter protein in mouse brain. Brain Res. 1053, 154161.
  • Horsfield S. A., Rosse R. B., Tomasino V., Schwartz B. L., Mastropaolo J. and Deutsch S. I. (2002) Fluoxetine's effects on cognitive performance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 32, 337344.
  • Ishizuka K., Paek M., Kamiya A. and Sawa A. (2006) A review of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1): neurodevelopment, cognition, and mental conditions. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 11891197.
  • Kajitani K., Thorne M., Samson M. and Robertson G. S. (2010) Nitric oxide synthase mediates the ability of darbepoetin alfa to improve the cognitive performance of STOP null mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 35, 17181728.
  • Kamiya A., Tomoda T., Chang J. et al. (2006) DISC1-NDEL1/NUDEL protein interaction, an essential component for neurite outgrowth, is modulated by genetic variations of DISC1. Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, 33133323.
  • Keefe R. S., Bilder R. M., Davis S. M. et al. (2007) Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE Trial. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64, 633647.
  • Kilpinen H., Ylisaukko-Oja T., Hennah W., Palo O. M., Varilo T., Vanhala R., Nieminen-von Wendt T., von Wendt L., Paunio T. and Peltonen L. (2008) Association of DISC1 with autism and Asperger syndrome. Mol. Psychiatry 13, 187196.
  • Kolman A. (2004) Epothilone D (Kosan/Roche). Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 5, 657667.
  • Lanfumey L., Mongeau R., Cohen-Salmon C. and Hamon M. (2008) Corticosteroid-serotonin interactions in the neurobiological mechanisms of stress-related disorders. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 32, 11741184.
  • Levkovitz Y., Caftori R., Avital A. and Richter-Levin G. (2002) The SSRIs drug Fluoxetine, but not the noradrenergic tricyclic drug Desipramine, improves memory performance during acute major depression. Brain Res. Bull. 58, 345350.
  • Li W. L., Cai H. H., Wang B., Chen L., Zhou Q. G., Luo C. X., Liu N., Ding X. S. and Zhu D. Y. (2009) Chronic fluoxetine treatment improves ischemia-induced spatial cognitive deficits through increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. J. Neurosci. Res. 87, 112122.
  • Lopez A. D., Mathers C. D., Ezzati M., Jamison D. T. and Murray C. J. (2006) Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet 367, 17471757.
  • Maier W. (2008) Common risk genes for affective and schizophrenic psychoses. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 258(Suppl 2), 3740.
  • Mathers C. D. and Loncar D. (2006) Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 3, e442.
  • Matsuoka Y., Jouroukhin Y., Gray A. J. et al. (2008) A neuronal microtubule-interacting agent, NAPVSIPQ, reduces tau pathology and enhances cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 325, 146153.
  • McEwen B. S. (2003) Mood disorders and allostatic load. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 200207.
  • Merenlender-Wagner A., Pikman R., Giladi E., Andrieux A. and Gozes I. (2010) NAP (davunetide) enhances cognitive behavior in the STOP heterozygous mouse–a microtubule-deficient model of schizophrenia. Peptides 31, 13681373.
  • Millan M. J., Dekeyne A., Papp M., La Rochelle C. D., MacSweeny C., Peglion J. L. and Brocco M. (2001) S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: II. Behavioral profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 298, 581591.
  • Millar J. K., Wilson-Annan J. C., Anderson S. et al. (2000) Disruption of two novel genes by a translocation co-segregating with schizophrenia. Hum. Mol. Genet. 9, 14151423.
  • Mirnics K., Middleton F. A., Lewis D. A. and Levitt P. (2001) Analysis of complex brain disorders with gene expression microarrays: schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse. Trends Neurosci. 24, 479486.
  • Morris J., Kandpal G., Ma L. and Austin C. (2003) DISC1(disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1) is a centrosome-assciated protein that interacts with MAP1A, MIPT3, ATF4/5 and NUDEL: regulation and loss if interaction with mutation. Hum. Mol. Genet. 12, 15911608.
  • Mostert J. P., Koch M. W., Heerings M., Heersema D. J. and De Keyser J. (2008) Therapeutic potential of fluoxetine in neurological disorders. CNS Neurosci. Ther. 14, 153164.
  • Mowla A., Mosavinasab M. and Pani A. (2007) Does fluoxetine have any effect on the cognition of patients with mild cognitive impairment? A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 27, 6770.
  • Mutlu O., Ulak G., Laugeray A. and Belzung C. (2009) Effects of neuronal and inducible NOS inhibitor 1-[2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl] imidazole (TRIM) in unpredictable chronic mild stress procedure in mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 92, 8287.
  • Nettles J. H., Li H., Cornett B., Krahn J. M., Snyder J. P. and Downing K. H. (2004) The binding mode of epothilone A on alpha, beta-tubulin by electron crystallography. Science 305, 866869.
  • Norton N., Williams H. J. and Owen M. J. (2006) An update on the genetics of schizophrenia. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 19, 158164.
  • Owen M. J., Craddock N. and O'Donovan M. C. (2005) Schizophrenia: genes at last? Trends Genet. 21, 518525.
  • Pineyro G. and Blier P. (1999) Autoregulation of serotonin neurons: role in antidepressant drug action. Pharmacol. Rev. 51, 533591.
  • Porsolt R. D., Bertin A., Blavet N., Deniel M. and Jalfre M. (1979) Immobility induced by forced swimming in rats: effects of agents which modify central catecholamine and serotonin activity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 57, 201210.
  • Porter R. J., Gallagher P., Thompson J. M. and Young A. H. (2003) Neurocognitive impairment in drug-free patients with major depressive disorder. Br. J. Psychiatry 182, 214220.
  • Powell K. J., Hori S. E., Leslie R., Andrieux A., Schellinck H., Thorne M. and Robertson G. S. (2007) Cognitive impairments in the STOP null mouse model of schizophrenia. Behav. Neurosci. 121, 826835.
  • Schloesser R. J., Huang J., Klein P. S. and Manji H. K. (2008) Cellular plasticity cascades in the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 33, 110133.
  • Seeman P., Schwarz J., Chen, J.-F. et al. (2006) Psychosis pathways converge via D2high dopamine receptors. Synapse 60, 319346.
  • Song L., Che W., Min-Wei W., Murakami Y. and Matsumoto K. (2006) Impairment of the spatial learning and memory induced by learned helplessness and chronic mild stress. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 83, 186193.
  • Straub R. E., Jiang Y., MacLean C. J. et al. (2002) Genetic variation in the 6p22.3 gene DTNBP1, the human ortholog of the mouse dysbindin gene, is associated with schizophrenia. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71, 337348.
  • Talbot K., Cho D. S., Ong W. Y., Benson M. A., Han L. Y., Kazi H. A., Kamins J., Hahn C. G., Blake D. J. and Arnold S. E. (2006) Dysbindin-1 is a synaptic and microtubular protein that binds brain snapin. Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, 30413054.
  • Taya S., Shinoda T., Tsuboi D. et al. (2007) DISC1 regulates the transport of the NUDEL/LIS1/14-3-3e complex through kinesin-1. J. Neurosci. 27, 1526.
  • Weiland-Fiedler P., Erickson K., Waldeck T., Luckenbaugh D. A., Pike D., Bonne O., Charney D. S. and Neumeister A. (2004) Evidence for continuing neuropsychological impairments in depression. J. Affect. Disord. 82, 253258.
  • Yalcin I., Belzung C. and Surget A. (2008) Mouse strain differences in the unpredictable chronic mild stress: a four-antidepressant survey. Behav. Brain Res. 193, 140143.
  • Zhang B., Carroll J., Trojanowski J. Q. et al. (2012) The microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone D, reduces axonal dysfunction, neurotoxicity, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer-like pathology in an interventional study with aged tau transgenic mice. J. Neurosci. 32, 36013611.

Supporting Information

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and methods
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Conclusion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Supporting Information

As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials are peer-reviewed and may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
jnc12027-sup-0001-FigureS1.tifimage/tif12781KFigure S1. (a) Schema of chronic treatments and of the test sequence. (b) Effects of chronic treatments on the body weight.
jnc12027-sup-0002-FigureS2.tifimage/tif15193KFigure S2. (a) Total fluid consumption. (b) Fluoxetine consumption.
jnc12027-sup-0003-TableS1-S6-AppendixS1.docWord document484K

Table S1. Statistical analyses.

Table S2. Statistical analyses.

Table S3. Effects of chronic treatments on SERT densities in various areas of treated-mice.

Table S4. Effects of chronic treatments on NET densities in various areas of treated-mice.

Table S5. Performances of WT and STOP KO males after various treatments

Table S6. Abbreviations.

Appendix S1. Supplementary data.

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.