Deep brain stimulation of the accumbens increases dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in the prefrontal cortex

Authors

  • Addy van Dijk,

    Corresponding author
    1. Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    • Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Andre A. Klompmakers,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    2. Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Matthijs G. P. Feenstra,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    2. Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Damiaan Denys

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    2. Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Address correspondence and reprint requests to A. van Dijk, IA 2-130 Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: a.vandijk@amc.nl

Abstract

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is effective in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the rapid and effective changes of DBS. One of the hypotheses is that DBS modulates activity of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DBS in the NAc core on the extracellular concentration of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the medial (mPFC) and orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC). Freely moving rats were bilaterally stimulated in the NAc core for 2 h while dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline were measured using in vivo microdialysis in the mPFC and the OFC. We report rapid increases in the release of dopamine and serotonin to a maximum of 177% and 127% in the mPFC and an increase up to 171% and 166% for dopamine and noradrenaline in the OFC after onset of stimulation in the NAc core. These results provide further evidence for the distal effects of DBS and corroborate previous clinical and pre-clinical findings of altered neuronal activity in prefrontal areas.

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