Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Jagadeesh S. Rao, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg. 9, 1S-126 Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892-0947, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Errata: Retraction Volume 140, Issue 6, 980, Article first published online: 3 February 2017
Errata: Retraction Volume 140, Issue 6, 979, Article first published online: 13 February 2017
Aging is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with cognitive decline. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of brain aging are not clear. Recent studies suggest epigenetic influences on gene expression in AD, as DNA methylation levels influence protein and mRNA expression in postmortem AD brain. We hypothesized that some of these changes occur with normal aging. To test this hypothesis, we measured markers of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade, neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-apoptosis factors, and gene specific epigenetic modifications in postmortem frontal cortex from nine middle-aged [41 ± 1 (SEM) years] and 10 aged subjects (70 ± 3 years). The aged compared with middle-aged brain showed elevated levels of neuroinflammatory and AA cascade markers, altered pro and anti-apoptosis factors and loss of synaptophysin. Some of these changes correlated with promoter hypermethylation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), and synaptophysin and hypomethylation of BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX). These molecular alterations in aging are different from or more subtle than changes associated with AD pathology. The degree to which they are related to changes in cognition or behavior during normal aging remains to be evaluated.
Aging is a complex process that involves alterations in brain structure and function (Hedden and Gabrieli 2004). Aging is a risk factor for late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 93% of the approximate 4.5 million AD patients in United States are over the age of 75 (Hebert et al. 2003). Evidence suggests that age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) influence the transition of normal aging to progressive AD and dementia (Bartrés-Faz et al. 2001; Petersen 2002, 2004). Several studies indicate that cognitive decline during aging is linked to generation of reactive-oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress (Dröge and Schipper 2007), apoptosis involving caspase 3, 6, and 9 activation (Wu et al. 2006; Zhang et al. 2006; Albrecht et al. 2007), and decreased synaptic plasticity (Yankner et al. 2008; Bishop et al. 2010). Despite these findings, brain mechanisms that underlie cognitive changes with aging are incompletely understood.
In this regard, altered arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) cascade signaling has been implicated in AD and cognitive impairment. AD patients demonstrated up-regulated AA incorporation into brain from plasma (Esposito et al. 2008), and elevated protein and mRNA levels of AA-metabolizing enzymes cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), secretory sPLA2, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (Rao et al. 2011). In the brain, AA and its metabolites are known to influence signal transduction, gene transcription, neuronal activity, apoptosis, and other processes (Leslie and Watkins 1985; O'Banion 1999; Kam and See 2000). AA can be released from membrane phospholipids by Ca2+-dependent cPLA2-IVA or secretory sPLA2-IIA which differ in their calcium requirement, phosphorylation, and substrate specificities (Murakami et al. 1998, 1999; Akiba et al. 1999; Yang et al. 1999; Murakami and Kudo 2002). In addition, a Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is thought to be selective for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). The released AA can be metabolized to proinflammatory PGE2 by the catalytic action of COX-2 and also be channeled to anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acid by the enzyme p450 epoxygenase. DHA and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid are produced by the enzymatic action of iPLA2 and p450 epoxygenase and are reported to be neuroprotective (Hogyes et al. 2003; Bazan 2005; Florent et al. 2006; Bas et al. 2007; Rao et al. 2007; Iliff et al. 2010). Furthermore, genetic deletion of cPLA2-IVA (the main AA releasing enzyme) improved cognitive performance in a transgenic animal model of AD (Sanchez-Mejia et al. 2008). Also, lithium treatment, which has been reported to be beneficial in AD patients (Brinkman et al. 1984; Pomara et al. 1984; Mendes et al. 2009), down-regulated cPLA2 and sPLA2 activity, as well as AA concentration, in a rat model of neuroinflammation (Basselin et al. 2007a, b, 2010) and in normal rat brain (Rintala et al. 1999).
Up-regulated AA cascade changes in the AD brain are associated with increased levels of microglial CD11b, astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (Rao et al. 2012). Furthermore, decreased protein and mRNA levels of the pre- and post-synaptic markers synaptophysin and drebrin have been reported to accompany neuroinflammation and altered AA metabolism in the AD brain (Rao et al. 2012). In addition, a recent study found that these molecular imbalances in the AD brain are associated with abnormal epigenetic modifications (Rao et al. 2012). It is not clear, however, whether changes found in AD overlap with changes associated with aging.
Epigenetic modifications during aging are not well established. Exploring the ‘aging epigenetics’ hypothesis could elucidate molecular disturbances of neurological aging and other age associated processes, as well as vulnerability to age-related brain diseases such as AD and Parkinson's disease (Fraga and Esteller 2007; Calvanese et al. 2009; Lockett et al. 2010).
Epigenetic modifications involve alterations in chromatin structure that affect gene expression without changing primary sequences (Jaenisch and Bird 2003). A well-studied epigenetic modification is DNA methylation, which is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1, -3a, and -3b) (Li et al. 1992; Okano et al. 1999). DMNTs heavily target cytosine guanine repeats in 5′ promoter regions called CpG islands (Wu et al. 2010), which occur in about 40% of mammalian genes (Egger et al. 2004). DNA methylation regulates genes that are involved in memory formation and synaptic plasticity, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and reelin (Abdolmaleky et al. 2005; Levenson et al. 2006; Miller and Sweatt 2007; Lubin et al. 2008). Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are suggested to influence neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders such as AD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression (Dong et al. 2005; Folstein et al. 2007; Bollati et al. 2011; Kellom et al. 2012).
A novel hypothesis regarding altered epigenetic processes in age-related cognitive decline has emerged recently (Penner et al. 2010). Studies suggest that the cerebral cortex in normal human subjects spanning fetal, adolescent, and adult ages, has altered and concomitant DNA methylation and mRNA gene expression patterns (Siegmund et al. 2007). In addition, decreased mRNA expression of genes important for synaptic plasticity and memory formation was attributed to the hypermethylated state of promoter regions in the hippocampus of aged rats (Penner et al. 2011). Despite these findings, whether the transition from normal aging to cognitive decline is influenced by aberrant gene-specific changes in DNA methylation has not yet been agreed on.
To understand how molecular pathways are different between normal aging and AD pathology, we examined the brain AA cascade, neuroinflammation and synaptic loss in normal human aging. We hypothesized that normal aging would have different molecular changes with those associated with AD pathology. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these changes, if they existed, would be accompanied by aberrant DNA methylation patterns for genes associated with cognition and synaptic integrity, such as BDNF, cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and synaptophysin. To test these hypotheses, we used postmortem frontal cortex from apparently healthy human subjects of different ages, and tested genes involved in the brain AA cascade, inflammation, apoptosis, and synaptic integrity. We measured protein and mRNA levels and gene specific methylation for BDNF, CREB, synaptophysin, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and BCL-2 associated X (BAX) protein. We also measured protein and mRNA levels as well as their promoter methylation of COX-2, NF-κB and p450 expoxygenase enzymes because their levels and methylation are altered in AD (Rao et al. 2012) and also to understand the extent of differences between aging and AD. We studied the frontal cortex because of its pathophysiological changes in AD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia (Rao et al. 2011, 2012) as well as in aged brain (Morrison and Baxter 2012), and because we studied this region in previous experiments (Abdelmohsen et al. 2010; Chen et al. 2011).
Materials and methods
Postmortem brain samples
Frozen postmortem human frontal cortex samples (Brodmann area 9) from 19 subjects aged from 32 to 80 years were provided by the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center (McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA) under PHS grant number R24MH068855 to J.S. Rao. We divided samples into two groups, the average age (years) for 41 ± 1.0 (mean ± SEM n = 9) for the middle-aged group and 70 ± 3 (n = 10) for the aged group. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of McLean Hospital, and by the Office of Human Subjects Research (OHSR) of the NIH (# 4380). Characteristics of brain samples are provided in Supplemental Information (Table S1). Mean post-mortem interval, pH, and RNA integrity number did not significantly differ between subjects (data not shown). However, the histories of cognitive status for these subjects were not available.
Preparation of cytosolic fractions
Cytosolic brain fractions were prepared as reported (Dwivedi et al. 2000). Brain samples were homogenized in a buffer containing 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 2 mM EGTA, 5 mM EDTA, 1.5 mM pepstatin, 2 mM leupeptin, 0.5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 0.2 U/mL aprotinin, and 2 mM dithiothreitol, using a Polytron homogenizer (Bohemia, NY, USA). The homogenate was centrifuged at 100 000 g for 60 min at 4°C, and the resulting supernatant (cytosolic fraction) was collected.
Western blot for protein levels
Proteins from the cytosolic fraction (50 μg) were separated on 4–20% SDS-polyacrylamide gels (PAGE) (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA), and electrophoretically transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane (Bio-Rad). Protein blots were incubated overnight in Tris-buffered-saline containing 5% non-fat dried milk and 0.1% Tween-20, with specific primary antibodies for proinflammatory markers: IL-1β, GFAP, CD11b, iNOS, NF-κB p50 (1 : 500); AA cascade proteins: cPLA2-IVA, sPLA2-IIA, iPLA2-VIA, COX-2, p450 epoxygenase (1 : 500); neurotropic, synaptic, and apoptotic markers: BDNF, synaptophysin, CREB, BAX, BCL-2 (1 : 500) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) (1 : 500) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA; Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA; Cell Signaling, Boston, MA, USA); and β-actin (1 : 10 000) (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). The cytosolic blots were incubated with appropriate horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies (Bio-Rad), and were visualized using a chemiluminiscence reaction (Amersham, Piscataway, NJ, USA). Optical densities of immunoblot bands were measured using Image J (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA) and were normalized to β-actin. Values are expressed as percent of control.
Total RNA isolation and real time RT-PCR
Brain samples were homogenized in Qiagen® lysis solution and total RNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction using an RNeasy® lipid tissue mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). Complementary DNA was prepared from total RNA using a high-capacity cDNA Archive kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). mRNA levels (IL-1β, GFAP, CD11b, iNOS, NF-κB p50, cPLA2-IVA, sPLA2-IIA, iPLA2-VIA, COX-2, p450 epoxygenase, BDNF, synaptophysin, CREB, BAX, BCL-2) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, using an ABI PRISM 7000 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems). Specific primers and probes for markers were purchased from TaqManPR gene expression assays (Applied Biosystems), consisting of a 20x mix of unlabeled PCR primers and Taqman minor groove binder (MGB) probe (FAM dye-labeled). The fold-change in gene expression was determined by the ΔΔCT method (Livak and Schmittgen 2001). Data are expressed as the relative level of the target gene in the middle age group versus older age group. Values were normalized to the endogenous control (β-globulin). All experiments were carried out on the two groups of brain.
Genomic DNA isolation
Total genomic DNA was isolated from postmortem brain samples using a GenElute™ Mammalian Genomic DNA Mini prep Kit (Sigma Aldrich). Briefly, tissue was homogenized in lysis solution T and proteinase K solution, and incubated for 4 h at 55°C in a shaking water bath. Genomic DNA was isolated using the binding column according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Global DNA methylation determination
Global DNA methylation was determined from the total genomic DNA using Imprint Methylated DNA Quantification Kit (Sigma Aldrich) following the manufacturer's recommendations. Values are expressed as absorbance at 450 nm.
Gene specific DNA methylation determination
Gene specific DNA methylation was determined by using a OneStep qMethyl™-Lite kit (Zymo Research, Irvine, CA, USA) and methyl primer (SABioscience, Frederick, MD, USA) as previously described (Rao et al. 2012). BDNF (catalog#: EPHS102242-1A), CREB (Catalog# EPHS105031-1A), synaptophysin (catalog# EPHS115006-1A), NF-κβ (catalog# EPHS111169-1A), COX-2 (catalog# EPHS114652-1A), p450 epoxygenase (catalog# EPHS100608-1A), BCL-2 (catalog# EPHS106665-1A), and BAX (catalog# EPHS107705-1A) were studied. Briefly, 20 ng of global DNA was incubated in presence (test reaction) and absence (reference reaction) of methyl sensitive restriction enzymes (5 U each) (BStUI, HpyCH4IV and HpaII; NEB Inc., Ipswich, MA, USA) at 37°C for 2 h, followed by real-time RT-PCR as described in the manufacturer's instructions. The percentage of methylation was calculated using the formula 100 × 2−ΔCt, where ΔCt is the average Ct value from the test reaction minus the average Ct value from the reference reaction. Percentage methylation is relative to each experiment.
Protein and mRNA data are expressed as mean ± SEM and t-tests are used to compare old versus middle age groups. Correlation statistics were used to determine R square and p values for DNA methylation data. Statistical significance was taken at p < 0.05.
Elevated neuroinflammatory markers
Compared with the middle-age group, in the cortex of the old age group there were significantly higher protein (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) (Fig. 1a and c) and mRNA levels (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) of CD11b and GFAP (Fig. 1b and d), markers of microglia and astrocytes, respectively. These changes were associated with a significant increase in protein (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) and mRNA (p < 0.001; p < 0.01) levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β and iNOS in the old age group (Fig. 1e–h), and with elevated levels of protein (p < 0.05) and mRNA (p < 0.05) for NF-κB (Niederberger et al. 2007; Pereira and Oakley 2008) (Fig. 1i and j). Levels of NF-κB subunits were not significantly altered by CpG methylation at the promoter site (R2 = 0.076, p = 0.239) (Fig. 1k).
AA cascade markers
Protein levels for a number of AA cascade markers, cPLA2-IVA, sPLA2-IIA, and COX-2, were not significantly altered in the aged relative to the middle age group (Figs 2a, c and 3a), nor were mean mRNA levels of cPLA2 IVA or COX-2 (Figs 2b and 3b). However, sPLA2 mRNA was increased in the aged brain (p < 0.01) (Fig. 2d). Protein and mRNA levels of iPLA2-VIA (p < 0.01; p < 0.05) and p450 epoxygenase (p < 0.001; p < 0.01) were significantly increased in aged compared with middle age group brain (Figs 2e, f, 3d and e), but there was no significant difference in promoter methylation for COX-2 (R2 = 0.039, p = 0.429) or p450 expoxygenase genes (R2 = 0.015, p = 0.603) (Fig. 3c and f). PLA2 isoforms lack CpG islands, so we did not assess the methylation state of these genes.
Altered pro and anti-apoptosis factors with aging
The protein level of anti-apoptosis factor, BDNF, was significantly decreased in frontal cortex of the aged compared with middle-age group (p < 0.05) (Fig. 3g). This difference did not correspond to a significant change in BDNF mRNA (Fig. 3h). However, protein and mRNA levels of CREB, a transcription factor for BDNF, were significantly reduced in frontal cortex of the aged group (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) (Fig. 3j and k). The promoter sites of BDNF were significantly hypermethylated with increasing age (R2 = 0.222, p = 0.036) (Fig. 3i). CREB also was significantly hypermethylated at its promoter region with increasing age (R2 = 0.378, p = 0.004) (Fig. 3l). The protein level of pro-apoptosis factor BAX was increased while the level of BCL-2 was decreased in the aged group (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) (Fig. 4a and d). The aged group also showed an increase in the mRNA level of BAX (p < 0.001) but no significant change in the BCL-2 mRNA level (Fig. 4b and e). An increased BAX/BCL-2 mRNA ratio is associated with vulnerability to apoptotic activation (Fig. 4g). The BAX/BCL-2 methylation ratio was significantly decreased with aging (R2 = 0.414, p = 0.002) (Fig. 4h).
Protein and mRNA levels of the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin were significantly decreased in the aged compared with middle-aged group (p < 0.01; p < 0.05) (Fig. 4i and j). These changes corresponded to increased hypermethylation of synaptophysin promoter sites with increasing age (R2 = 0.453, p = 0.001) (Fig. 4k).
Global methylation levels
We found that global DNA methylation levels were reduced with aging (R2 = 0.336, p = 0.009) (Fig. 4l). Mean protein level of NSE was not statistically significant between the groups (data not shown). NSE is considered a marker of postmortem tissue integrity in the absence of acute injury (Nogami et al. 1998).
Brain aging involves complex structural and molecular processes that provide a balance between protective and degenerative factors. Increased innate immunity has been reported during rodent aging, with activation of brain microglia and astrocytes (Rozovsky et al. 1998). Consistent with that observation, our study demonstrated a significant increase in protein and mRNA levels of phenotypic markers of microglia and astrocytes, namely CD11b and GFAP, in aged compared with middle-aged postmortem frontal cortex. These changes were associated with increased protein and mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. Increased levels of these markers are often associated with infection. Alternatively, they can be attributed to global DNA hypomethylation during aging, which agrees with evidence that DNA hypomethylation contributes to increased immunogenicity during aging (Agrawal et al. 2010). Decreased global DNA methylation may contribute to activation of microglia and astrocytes and release of cytokines during aging (Fig. 5a).
Despite evidence of activated proinflammatory markers in our aged brains, we did not observe significant changes in the AA cascade markers cPLA2 IVA or COX-2. Only mRNA expression of sPLA2 IIA was increased. Cell culture studies have shown that IL-1β can induce transcription of sPLA2 in an NF-κB dependent manner (Hernandez et al. 1999, 2002; Laflamme et al. 1999; Blais and Rivest 2001; Moolwaney and Igwe 2005). NF-κBp50 is known to regulate transcription of pro-inflammatory genes (Niederberger et al. 2007; Pereira and Oakley 2008) and can influence sPLA2 expression during aging (Dandekar et al. 2004). In contrast, proinflammatory changes were accompanied by increased protein and mRNA levels of iPLA2 and of cytochrome p450 epoxygenase. Given that DHA and epoxyeicosatrienoic acid are metabolized by these enzymes, these changes can be neuroprotective (Hogyes et al. 2003; Bazan 2005; Florent et al. 2006; Bas et al. 2007; Rao et al. 2007; Iliff et al. 2010). Elevated protein and mRNA levels of iPLA2 and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase in the aged brain may represent compensatory neuroprotection against neuroinflammation.
It is evident from animal studies that a persistent and prolonged elevation of neuroinflammation can have detrimental brain effects (Block et al. 2007). Consistent with these reports, this study showed a significant decrease in protein levels of BDNF, CREB, and the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin in the aged compared with middle-aged brain. These changes were linked to hypermethylation in their promoter regions. Similarly, reduced BDNF levels and histone modifications have been reported in aged rats (Zeng et al. 2011), and the post-synaptic dendritic spine marker drebrin has been reported to decline with human aging as well (Hatanpaa et al. 1999). The significant reduction in brain CREB expression with aging may contribute to altered synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment. Animal studies have demonstrated that reduced CREB levels lead to reduced neuronal excitability and plasticity, and trigger neurodegeneration (Jancic et al. 2009). Furthermore, the ratio between the pro- and anti-apoptosis factors, BCL-2, and BAX, respectively, was altered in the aged brain, with increased protein and mRNA levels of BAX. This change may be related to BAX promoter hypomethylation. Similarly, pro-apoptotic stresses have been reported to occur in the aged brain (Albrecht et al. 2007). Altogether, subtle changes associated with synaptic plasticity during aging could set the stage for disease progression and cognitive impairment. Onset of severe cognitive decline may require more dramatic neuropathological changes, such as those found in AD, where many key signaling pathways are altered and epigenetically modified (Rao et al. 2011, 2012).
We found changes in several key markers of normal brain aging that overlap with those in AD (Fig. 5b). Our prior AD study, which examined the same brain region, showed neuroinflammation, and reduced BDNF and synaptophysin (Rao et al. 2012). At the epigenetic level, both AD and aged brains showed hypermethylated promoters of BDNF and synaptophysin promoters. However, there are AA cascade molecular alterations in AD that were absent in the normal aged subjects. We found that that AD pathology was associated with up-regulated expression of AA releasing enzymes (cPLA2 IVA and sPLA2 IIA,), but we found no significant changes for these markers with aging in this study. Furthermore, AD reduced expression of iPLA2 and p450 epoxygenase, while aging significantly increased expression of these markers. Enzymatic products of iPLA2 and p450 epoxygenase (DHA and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, respectively) are thought to be neuroprotective (Hogyes et al. 2003; Bazan 2005; Florent et al. 2006; Bas et al. 2007; Rao et al. 2007; Iliff et al. 2010), suggesting an aging pathway that may prevent harmful micro environmental stresses in the brain (Fig. 5a).
Normal aging and AD also differed in patterns of global DNA methylation (Fig. 5b). Aging was associated with a hypomethylated global DNA state while AD had a hypermethylated global DNA state. We found evidence of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and of subtle changes in synaptic markers in the aged brain, possibly because of age induced hypomethylated global DNA. Inflammation and harmful biological stresses that compromise neuronal survival and promote cognitive impairment in AD are accompanied by hypermethylation of DNA and may promote β-amyloid accumulation. Indirectly, hypermethylation may lead to alteration in β-amyloid processing and accumulation. This is because β-amyloid was reported to reduce protein and mRNA levels of β-amyloid degrading enzyme, neprilysin along with hypermethylation of the promoter region of neprilysin in murine cerebral endothelial cells (Chen et al. 2009). These contrasts in epigenetic modifications may lead to diverging directions in synaptic plasticity and disease progression. Interestingly, up-regulated neuroprotective enzymes iPLA2 and p450 epoxygenase, combined with a lack of AA cascade expressional changes in brain aging, may have prevented our aged subjects from developing severe molecular alterations. Although aging is a prominent risk factor for AD, many molecular and epigenetic modifications must occur in aging to diverge to the severe cognitive decline of AD. Some of the molecular and epigenetic modifications observed during aging might result in MCI and later evolve as AD (Tarkowski et al. 2003; Galimberti et al. 2008). Further studies are warranted to understand molecular and epigenetic changes in mild cognitively impaired subjects. Moreover, agents that enhance the neuroprotective products released by the enzymes iPLA2 and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase (Hogyes et al. 2003; Bazan 2005; Florent et al. 2006; Bas et al. 2007; Rao et al. 2007; Iliff et al. 2010) or suppress AA cascade metabolism and neuroinflammation may have beneficial effects in aging.
This study was exploratory and preliminary. Further experiments are needed on larger sample sizes and different brain regions, as well as inclusion of cognitive status, to better understand changes associated with brain aging. In conclusion, human brain aging is associated with neuroinflammation, up-regulated pro-apoptotic factors and loss of the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin. Some of these changes may be because of epigenetic modification at promoter regions. The balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory enzymes during normal aging might prevent conversion to the pathological state like AD.
Conflicts of interests
We thank the NIH Fellows Editorial Board for editorial assistance. We thank the Harvard Brain Bank, Boston, MA for providing the postmortem brain samples under PHS grant number R24MH068855. This research was entirely supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD USA.