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Keywords:

  • age;
  • brain global ischemia;
  • inflammation;
  • meloxicam;
  • UPR

Abstract

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The unfolded protein response (UPR) in the hippocampal regions Cornu Ammonis 1 hippocampal region, Cornu Ammonis 3 hippocampal region, and dentate gyrus, as well as in the cerebral cortex of 3-month-old and 18-month-old rats were studied in a model of 15 min of global cerebral ischemia followed by 48 h of reperfusion. UPR was measured by quantifying the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), GRP78 and GRP94 transcripts using qPCR and the amounts of PDI and GRP78 by western blot. The study shows how the mRNA levels of these genes were similar in 3-month-old and 18-month-old sham-operated animals, but the ischemic insult elicited a noticeable increase in the expression of these genes in young animals that was scarcely appreciable in older animals. The striking increase in the mRNA levels of these genes in 3-month-old animals was abolished or even reverted by treatment with meloxicam, an anti-inflammatory agent. Western blot assays showed that the UPR was still detectable 48 h after ischemia in some of the studied areas, and provided evidence that the UPR is different between young and older animals. Western blot assays carried out in young animals also showed that meloxicam elicited different effects on the levels of PDI and GRP78 in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. We conclude that the UPR response to ischemic/reperfusion insult is age- and probably inflammation-dependent and could play an important role in ischemic vulnerability. The UPR appears to be strongly decreased in aged animals, suggesting a reduced ability for cell survival.

In this study, we conclude that the unfolded protein response (UPR) to ischemic/reperfusion insult is age- and probably inflammation-dependent and could play an important role in ischemic vulnerability. The UPR strongly decreased in aged rats, suggesting a reduced ability for cell survival. The increase in the mRNA levels of UPR gene transcripts in 3-month-old animals was abolished or even reverted by treatment with meloxicam, an anti-inflammatory agent.