Neuroprotective effect of exercise in rat hippocampal slices submitted to in vitro ischemia is promoted by decrease of glutamate release and pro-apoptotic markers

Authors

  • Flávio Afonso Gonçalves Mourão,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Hércules Ribeiro Leite,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    2. Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Luciana Estefani Drumond de Carvalho,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Talita Hélen Ferreira e Vieira,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Mauro Cunha Xavier Pinto,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Daniel de Castro Medeiros,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Ian Lara Lamounier Andrade,

    1. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Ambientais e da Saúde, Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte, Uni-BH, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Daniela Fontes Gonçalves,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Grace Schenatto Pereira,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes,

    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • André Ricardo Massensini

    Corresponding author
    1. Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    • Address correspondence and reprint requests to André Ricardo Massensini, Núcleo de Neurociências (NNC), Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Campus Pampulha. Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. E-mail: massen@icb.ufmg.br

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Abstract

The role of physical exercise as a neuroprotective agent against ischemic injury has been extensively discussed. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemia remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that physical exercise increases ischemic tolerance by decreasing the induction of cellular apoptosis and glutamate release. Rats (n = 50) were submitted to a swimming exercise protocol for 8 weeks. Hippocampal slices were then submitted to oxygen and glucose deprivation. Cellular viability, pro-apoptotic markers (Caspase 8, Caspase 9, Caspase 3, and apoptosis-inducing factor), and glutamate release were analyzed. The percentage of cell death, the amount of glutamate release, and the expression of the apoptotic markers were all decreased in the exercise group when compared to the sedentary group after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Our results suggest that physical exercise protects hippocampal slices from the effects of oxygen and glucose deprivation, probably by a mechanism involving both the decrease of glutamatergic excitotoxicity and apoptosis induction.

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Exercise reduces excitotoxicity and apoptosis. The mechanisms underlying neuroprotective effects of regular exercise are still not fully understood. Here, we showed that swim training promotes neuroprotection decreasing pro-apoptotic markers as caspases 8, 9, 3, and apoptose-Inducing Factor (AIF) as well as glutamate release from hippocampal slices. Our data reinforce the idea that exercise affords a neuroprotective effect.

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