Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma regulates synapse structure, function and plasticity (pages 147–161)
Katherine E. Horn, Bin Xu, Delphine Gobert, Bassam N. Hamam, Katherine M. Thompson, Chia-Lun Wu, Jean-François Bouchard, Noriko Uetani, Ronald J. Racine, Michel L. Tremblay, Edward S. Ruthazer, C. Andrew Chapman and Timothy E. Kennedy
Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07762.x
The mechanisms regulating synaptic connections in the mature brain are complex and remain to be elucidated. Our study reveals a novel role for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (RPTPσ), a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, in the regulation of dendritic spine morphology and synaptic plasticity in the adult CNS. These findings suggest that inhibitors of RPTPσ might be beneficial to manipulate synaptic plasticity, promote recovery of function and enhance learning and memory after injury and in neurodegenerative diseases. RPTPσ function at synapses: (a) Pre-synaptic RPTPσ promotes synaptic differentiation through interactions with post-synaptic TrkC and NGL-3. (b) Increased dendritic spine density and spine length in the brains of RPTPσ null mice. (c) Increased frequency of spontaneous excitatory mini-excitatory post-synaptic currents in RPTPσ null mice, consistent with increased numbers of synapses. (d) Mice lacking RPTPσ exhibit enhanced performance of in tests of novel object recognition.