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Journal of Neurochemistry

Cover image for Vol. 124 Issue 2

January 2013

Volume 124, Issue 2

Pages 159–261

  1. REVIEW

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
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      Adult neural stem cells: an endogenous tool to repair brain injury? (pages 159–167)

      Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Floriana Volpicelli, Valerio Piscopo, Carla Perrone-Capano and Umberto di Porzio

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12084

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    1. Top of page
    2. REVIEW
    3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. Gene Regulation & Genetics

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      Prion protein participates in the regulation of classical and alternative activation of BV2 microglia (pages 168–174)

      Fushan Shi, Lifeng Yang, Mohammed Kouadir, Yang Yang, Tianjian Ding, Jihong Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Xiaomin Yin and Deming Zhao

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12053

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      Prion protein regulates classical and alternative activation of microglia

      Earlier studies have suggested that cellular prion protein has a neuro-protective function. In this study, we demonstrated that cellular prion protein is involved in the modulation of the shift of microglia from a quiescent phenotype to an activated state and in the regulation of the microglial response during classical and alternative activation. The result provides the basic data for further study of cellular prion protein context- dependen neuro-protective function.

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      Identification of the minimal promoter for specific expression of the GABAρ1 receptor in retinal bipolar cells (pages 175–188)

      Arturo Israel Machuca-Parra, Ricardo Miledi and Ataúlfo Martínez-Torres

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12067

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      GABAρ receptors play a central role regulating rapid synaptic transmission in retinal bipolar neurons. Expression of GABAρ1 gene is timely controlled during early post-natal development, being transcriptionally active 7 days after birth in mice. A 232-bp fragment, flanking the 5'- end of the GABAρ1 gene, suffices to drive transcription in the inner nuclear layer of the retina.

    3. Signal Transduction & Synaptic Transmission

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      Identification of phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail of the μ-opioid receptor (pages 189–199)

      Ying-Ju Chen, Sue Oldfield, Adrian J. Butcher, Andrew B. Tobin, Kunal Saxena, Vsevolod V. Gurevich, Jeffrey L. Benovic, Graeme Henderson and Eamonn Kelly

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12071

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      This study was performed to identify sites in the C-terminal tail of the μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) that are phosphorylated. We found that the C-terminal tail of the receptor is phosphorylated at multiple sites, and that different kinases are likely to mediate these phosphorylation events. This is important because it suggests that multiple kinases regulate the signaling, desensitization and trafficking of MOPr.

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      Multiple tyrosine residues at the GABA binding pocket influence surface expression and mediate kinetics of the GABAA receptor (pages 200–209)

      Kurt T. Laha and Phu N. Tran

      Article first published online: 30 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12083

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      Multiple tyrosine residues at the GABA binding pocket influence surface expression and mediate kinetics of the GABA(A) receptorSeveral tyrosine residues are located in the GABA binding pocket of the GABA(A) receptor, but specific contributions of each residue to receptor function are not fully understood. We found that mutating each tyrosine specifically slowed the GABA binding rate. This detailed kinetic characterization of binding pocket mutations will aid the description of how neurotransmitter binding leads to receptor activation.

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      Laminin-γ1 chain and stress inducible protein 1 synergistically mediate PrPC-dependent axonal growth via Ca2+ mobilization in dorsal root ganglia neurons (pages 210–223)

      Tiago G. Santos, Flavio H. Beraldo, Glaucia N. M. Hajj, Marilene H. Lopes, Martin Roffe, Fernanda C. S. Lupinacci, Valeriy G. Ostapchenko, Vania F. Prado, Marco A. M. Prado and Vilma R. Martins

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12091

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      The role of PrPCmultiprotein complexes in sensory neurons was explored using several combinations of two of its ligands, the extracellular matrix protein laminin (or a peptide fromlamininγ1 chain comprising PrPC binding site) and the secreted co-chaperone STI1. We found a synergistic effect of these two ligands upon axonogenesis that depends on the presence of PrPC. Furthermore, these effects occur through intracellular calcium mobilization mechanisms and require TRPC channel activation, rather than mGluR1, which is involved only in laminin-γ1 pathways.

    6. Bioenergetics & Metabolism

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      Role of TrkB expression in rat adrenal gland during acute immobilization stress (pages 224–232)

      Yusuke Kondo, Masahiro To, Juri Saruta, Takashi Hayashi, Hiroki Sugiyama and Keiichi Tsukinoki

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12030

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      BDNF–TrkB interaction causes catecholamine release in adrenal medulla

      Stress induces expression of tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the adrenal medulla (Adm), but the role of TrkB expression is poorly understood. Here, we showed that activation of TrkB induces catecholamine release and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the Adm. During stress, BDNF–TrkB interaction may thus play a role in a positive feedback loop.

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      Vinpocetine and α-tocopherol prevent the increase in DA and oxidative stress induced by 3-NPA in striatum isolated nerve endings (pages 233–240)

      Nieves Herrera-Mundo and María Sitges

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12082

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      This study investigates the potential capacity of vinpocetine to overcome damage exerted by 3-NPA on brain dopamine (DA)-rich structures. 3-NPA inhibits MAO activity, increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and harmful DA-quinone products. Vinpocetine decreases DA uptake into synaptic vesicles, increases DA metabolism to DOPAC, and by this means prevents the particular damage exerted by 3-NPA in brain DA-rich structures. Drugs that increase DA and free radicals simultaneously, like 3-NPA, exacerbate the oxidative damage by harmful DA–quinone products. On the other hand, drugs that decrease DA and simultaneously act as antioxidants, like vinpocetine and α-tocopherol, are effective neuroprotective agents.

    8. Molecular Basis of Disease

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      Psychiatric disorder-related abnormal behavior and habenulointerpeduncular pathway defects in Wnt1-cre and Wnt1-GAL4 double transgenic mice (pages 241–249)

      Mitsunari Nakajima, Hisamichi Mori, Chisa Nishikawa, Momoko Tsuruta, Satoshi Okuyama and Yoshiko Furukawa

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12085

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      We found that a Wnt1-cre deleter mouse line for Cre/LoxP system exhibits psychiatric disorder-related behavioral abnormalities and abnormal cholinergic and glutamatergic fiber tracts in the interpeduncular nucleus derived from the neural crest. We propose that irregular development of the neural crest-derived cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

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      X-ray fluorescence analysis of iron and manganese distribution in primary dopaminergic neurons (pages 250–261)

      Tanja Dučić, Elisabeth Barski, Murielle Salome, Jan C. Koch, Mathias Bähr and Paul Lingor

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12073

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      Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy was performed to reveal the distribution of iron and manganese in primary midbrain neuron cultures. Mn2+ was preferably accumulated in dopaminergic neurons correlating with an increased expression of voltage-gated calcium channels. Stronger Mn uptake may thus result in increased oxidative stress and contribute to the vulnerability of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

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