Journal of Neurochemistry

Cover image for Vol. 129 Issue 2

April 2014

Volume 129, Issue 2

Pages 1–361

  1. Issue Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Cover (April 2014)

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12552

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      Front cover: Confocal image of retina cryosection from transgenic X. laevis expressing EGFP-fused mutant phosphodiesterase 6 in rod photoreceptors. The overlay of EGFP-fluorescence (green) and Wheat Germ Agglutinin staining (red) shows targeting of mutant phosphodiesterase 6 to the rod outer segment. The photoreceptor cell nuclei are stained with TO-PRO3 (blue). J. Neurochem. 2014, vol. 129 (2), pp. 256-263.

      Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/jnc.12501

  2. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12553

  3. IN THIS ISSUE

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. You have free access to this content
  4. PREFACE

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. Emerging concepts on neuronal cytoskeleton (page 205)

      Christian Gonzalez-Billault and Paul Letourneau

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12674

  5. REVIEW ARTICLES

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Structure meets function: actin filaments and myosin motors in the axon (pages 213–220)

      Don B. Arnold and Gianluca Gallo

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12503

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      This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the organization and roles of actin filaments, and associated myosin motor proteins, in regulating the structure and function of the axon shaft. Actin filament patches at the initial segment capture vesicles incorrectly being transported anterogradely into the axon (see schematic). When the vesicle is released from the patch, it undergoes retrograde transport back to the soma. Along the distal axon, actin patches serve as precursors to the emergence of filopodia, the first step in axon branching.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Actin dynamics in growth cone motility and navigation (pages 221–234)

      Timothy M. Gomez and Paul C. Letourneau

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12506

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      Actin filament organization in motile growth cone leading margin (peripheral (P-) domain) is regulated by actin-binding proteins that control all aspects of filament assembly, turnover, interactions with other filaments or cytoplasmic components, and produce mechanical forces. This Review outlines key aspects of growth cone actin dynamics, as well as the roles of adhesion-mediating proteins, like integrins, which stabilize actin-based protrusions and transduce mechanical forces generated by actomyosin activity into traction that pulls an elongating axon along the path toward its target.

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      Microtubules in neurons as information carriers (pages 235–239)

      Erik W. Dent and Peter W. Baas

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12621

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      We review here the possibility of neuronal microtubules acting as “information carriers”, conveying biochemical factors within axons and dendrites. The more dynamic regions of longer microtubules associate at their plus ends with information-rich proteins called +TIPs that can be deposited or interact with other proteins or structures encountered by the microtubule as it assembles. Short stable microtubules that transit within the axon (and presumably the dendrite) may also serve as vehicles for the delivery of such information. Microtubules are broadly known for their roles in architecture and transport, and we posit that such a role as information carriers may be a third major role for microtubules in neurons.

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      Rab-mediated trafficking role in neurite formation (pages 240–248)

      David Villarroel-Campos, Laura Gastaldi, Cecilia Conde, Alfredo Caceres and Christian Gonzalez-Billault

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12676

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      Intracellular trafficking emerges as key regulator of neurite and axon elongation. We summarized how members of RabGTPase family regulate several aspects of neuronal differentiation. Trans-Golgi network resident Rabs (in green) promotes neurite growth through exocytic carriers; whereas recycling endosome associated Rabs (in red) promote neurite elongation by local membrane delivery. Early/late endosome associated Rabs (in blue) show mixed behaviour, depending on the experimental model, a feature which is also discussed in the review.

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. Cytoprotection by endogenous zinc in the vertebrate retina (pages 249–255)

      Ivan Anastassov, Harris Ripps and Richard L. Chappell

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12627

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      Recent studies show that endogenous photoreceptor zinc, co-released with glutamate, provides feedback that reduces calcium entry at photoreceptor terminals, thereby regulating vesicular transmitter release. The experiments reported here provide evidence that the in vivo removal of endogenous zinc by chelation results in inner retinal glutamate toxicity. Thus, zinc auto-feedback likely plays a cytoprotective role important to retinal health and disease.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Cover
    3. Issue Information
    4. IN THIS ISSUE
    5. PREFACE
    6. REVIEW ARTICLES
    7. SHORT COMMUNICATION
    8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES
    1. Signal Transduction & Synaptic Transmission

      The GAFa domain of phosphodiesterase-6 contains a rod outer segment localization signal (pages 256–263)

      Pallavi Cheguru, Zhongming Zhang and Nikolai O. Artemyev

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12501

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      Trafficking of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), the key phototransduction enzyme, was analyzed in rods of transgenic X. laevis by constructing transgenes for rod-specific expression of chimeric PDE6/PDE5 proteins. Analysis of localization of chimeric PDE proteins reveals a novel GAFa domain–dependent targeting signal involved in proper trafficking of PDE6 to the rod outer segment.

      Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.12552.

    2. The role of NMDA and mGluR5 receptors in calcium mobilization and neurotoxicity of homocysteine in trigeminal and cortical neurons and glial cells (pages 264–274)

      Polina A. Abushik, Minna Niittykoski, Raisa Giniatullina, Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Genevieve Bart, Dmitriy Fayuk, Dmitry A. Sibarov, Sergei M. Antonov and Rashid Giniatullin

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12615

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      We show that NMDA and mGluR5 receptors in trigeminal and cortical neurons and mGluR5 receptors in glial cells mediate homocysteine (HCY)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation whereas HCY-evoked apoptosis involves both NMDA and mGluR5 receptors. This study revealed migraine-related short- and long-term effects of this redox active aminoacid within the nociceptive system and highlights potential targets for anti-nociception and neuroprotection.

    3. In vitro Characterization of a small molecule inhibitor of the alanine serine cysteine transporter -1 (SLC7A10) (pages 275–283)

      Jeffrey M. Brown, Lisa Hunihan, Margaret M. Prack, David G. Harden, Joanne Bronson, Carolyn D. Dzierba, Robert G. Gentles, Adam Hendricson, Rudy Krause, John E. Macor and Ryan S. Westphal

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12618

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      Enhancing NMDA function by increasing synaptic D-serine is a proposed therapeutic approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. Synaptic D-serine levels are regulated by the alanine, serine, cysteine transporter 1 (asc-1). The following study describes the first novel asc-1 inhibitor, Compound 1 (BMS-466442), and provides a path forward for the development of additional asc-1 inhibitors.

    4. Molecular, pharmacological, and signaling properties of octopamine receptors from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain (pages 284–296)

      Sabine Balfanz, Nadine Jordan, Teresa Langenstück, Johanna Breuer, Vera Bergmeier and Arnd Baumann

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12619

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      The biogenic amine octopamine is an important modulator of behavior and physiology in arthropods. Binding of octopamine to specific G protein-coupled receptors causes elevation of [Ca2+]i or [cAMP]i. Only one honeybee octopamine receptor inducing Ca2+ signals has been experimentally characterized, yet. Here, we present the pharmacological properties of four additional members of the honeybee octopamine receptor family causing cAMP production.

    5. Bioenergetics & Metabolism

      Maternal obesity impairs brain glucose metabolism and neural response to hyperglycemia in male rat offspring (pages 297–303)

      Hui Chen, David Simar and Margaret J. Morris

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12623

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      Maternal obesity reduced hypothalamic glucose uptake-lactate conversion, which disturbs glucose regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and potentially leads to hyperphagia. The down-regulation of hypothalamic glucose and lactate transporters and the synchronously decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression in response to maternal obesity may be an underlying mechanism. Post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD) consumption also impaired hypothalamic NPY response to hyperglycemia, however less potently than maternal obesity, potentially because of its limited impact on glucose-lactate conversion and transporter expression.

    6. Ethanol, not detectably metabolized in brain, significantly reduces brain metabolism, probably via action at specific GABA(A) receptors and has measureable metabolic effects at very low concentrations (pages 304–314)

      Caroline D. Rae, Joanne E. Davidson, Anthony D. Maher, Benjamin D. Rowlands, Mohammed A. Kashem, Fatima A. Nasrallah, Sundari K. Rallapalli, James M. Cook and Vladimir J. Balcar

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12634

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      Ethanol has many documented effects on brain neurochemistry including significantly decreasing glucose consumption. Here, we used multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and metabolomic neuropharmacology to examine alcohol effects on metabolism in cortical brain tissue slices. [1,2-13C]Ethanol is not metabolized by brain, but very low ethanol [0.1 mM] has significant effects on brain metabolism. Higher ethanol [1.0–60 mM] likely decreases metabolism through action at α4β3δ-containing GABA(A) receptors.

    7. Neuronal Plasticity & Behavior

      Enhanced synthesis and release of dopamine in transgenic mice with gain-of-function α6* nAChRs (pages 315–327)

      Yuexiang Wang, Jang-Won Lee, Gyeon Oh, Sharon R. Grady, J. Michael McIntosh, Darlene H. Brunzell, Jason R. Cannon and Ryan M. Drenan

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12616

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      Using a transgenic mouse model, we studied nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α6 subunit and their role regulating dopamine (DA) synthesis and release in nucleus accumbens shell. Using a combination of biochemistry and electrophysiology techniques, we show that increased activity of α6-containing nAChRs results in enhanced DA synthesis as well as increased extracellular DA levels following evoked release. These findings highlight the importance of α6 nAChRs in DA transmission, and indicate that compounds with pharmacological activity at these receptors may be useful smoking cessation therapeutics.

    8. Motor neuropathy-associated mutation impairs Seipin functions in neurotransmission (pages 328–338)

      Shunhui Wei, Stephanie Li-Ying Soh, Julia Xia, Wei-Yi Ong, Zhiping P. Pang and Weiping Han

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12638

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      Motoneuropathy-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Seipin-N88S mutation disrupts N-glycosylation and decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic currents (PSCs), and the amplitude of evoked excitatory and inhibitory PSCs. The readily releasable pool and synaptic vesicle (SV) release probability were reduced in neurons over-expressing Seipin-N88S, along with decreased number of docked vesicles. We propose that Seipin-N88S mutation impairs synaptic neurotransmission by regulating the docking of synaptic vesicles.

    9. Molecular Basis of Disease

      Neuroprotective role of hydralazine in rat spinal cord injury-attenuation of acrolein-mediated damage (pages 339–349)

      Jonghyuck Park, Lingxing Zheng, Andrew Marquis, Michael Walls, Brad Duerstock, Amber Pond, Sasha Vega-Alvarez, He Wang, Zheng Ouyang and Riyi Shi

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12628

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      The pathological role of acrolein in spinal cord injury (SCI) is demonstrated through its prolonged elevation and subsequent reduction by hydralazine, an acrolein scavenger, which leads to amelioration of tissue damage, motor deficits, and neuropathic pain. Acrolein injection into the spinal cord caused similar SCI pathologies that further support its role as an effective therapeutic target in SCI.

    10. Parkin reverses TDP-43-induced cell death and failure of amino acid homeostasis (pages 350–361)

      Michaeline Hebron, Wenqiang Chen, Matthew J. Miessau, Irina Lonskaya and Charbel E.-H. Moussa

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12630

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      TDP-43 increases 4E-BP levels and alters translational control, leading to elevation in glutamate (Glu) and lactate (Lac) and attenuation of glutamine (Gln), aspartate (Asp), leucine (Leu), and isoleucine (IsoLeu). TDP-43 decreases GABA levels and inhibits mitochondrial tri-carboxylic acid cycle (TCA), leading to neuronal loss. Parkin facilitates nuclear TDP-43 translocation to the cytoplasm and decreases oxidative stress, protects TCA cycle and promotes cell survival.

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