The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryotherapy on the biochemical and morphological changes in ischemic and reperfused (I/R) gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control and I/R groups, and divided based on whether or not the rats were submitted to cryotherapy. Following the reperfusion period, biochemical and morphological analyses were performed. Following cryotherapy, a reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and dichlorofluorescein oxidation levels were observed in I/R muscle. Cryotherapy in I/R muscle also minimized effects such as decreased cellular viability, levels of non-protein thiols and calcium ATPase activity as well as increased catalase activity. Cryotherapy also limited mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased the presence of neutrophils in I/R muscle, an effect that was corroborated by reduced myeloperoxidase activity in I/R muscle treated with cryotherapy. The effects of cryotherapy are associated with a reduction in the intensity of the inflammatory response and also with a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction.