SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adam PJ (1999) Choloepus didactylus. Mamm Species 621, 18.
  • Aiello A (1985) Sloth hair: unanswered questions. In: The Evolution and Ecology of Armadillos, Sloths and Vermilinguas. (ed. Montgomery GG), pp. 213218, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Alloing-Séguier L, Sánchez-Villagra MR, Lee MS, et al. (2013) The bony labyrinth in diprotodontian marsupial mammals: diversity in extant and extinct forms and relationships with size and phylogeny. J Mamm Evol 20, 191198.
  • Aramayo SA, Manera de Bianco T (1994) Aspectos de la locomoción de mamíferos extinguidos en base a icnitas del yacimiento paleoicnologico de Pehuen-Co (Pleistoceno Tardio) Provincia de Buenos AiresVI congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigrafía. Trelew, Chubut, Resúmenes, p. 17.
  • Argot C (2008) Changing views in paleontology: the story of a giant (Megatherium, Xenarthra). In: Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. (eds Sargis EJ, Dagosto M), pp 3750, Dordrecht: Springer Science.
  • Bargo MS (2001) The ground sloth Megatherium americanum: skull shape, bite forces, and diet. Acta Palaeontol Pol 46, 173192.
  • Bargo MS, Vizcaíno SF, Archuby FM, et al. (2000) Limb bone proportions, strength and digging in some Lujanian (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) mylodontid ground sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra). J Vertebr Paleontol 20, 601610.
  • Bell CM (2002) Did elephants hang from trees? – The giant sloths of South America. Geol Today 18, 6366.
  • Biewener AA (1990) Biomechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion. Science 250, 10971103.
  • Billet G, Hautier L, de Muizon C, et al. (2011) Oldest cingulate skulls provide congruence between morphological and molecular scenarios of armadillo evolution. Proc R Soc B 278, 27912797.
  • Billet G, Hautier L, Asher R, et al. (2012) High morphological variation of vestibular system accompanies slow and infrequent locomotion in three-toed sloths. Proc R Soc B 279, 39323939.
  • Blanco RE, Czerwonogora A (2003) The gait of Megatherium Cuvier 1796 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae). Senckenb Biol 83, 6168.
  • Brattstrom BH (1966) Sloth behavior. J Mammal 47, 348.
  • Britton SW, Kline RF (1939) Augmentation of activity in the sloth by adrenal extract, emotion and other conditions. Am J Physiol 127, 127130.
  • Casinos A (1996) Bipedalism and quadrupedalism in Megatherium: an attempt at biomechanical reconstruction. Lethaia 29, 8796.
  • Cox PG, Jeffery N (2010) Semicircular canals and agility: the influence of size and shape measures. J Anat 216, 3747.
  • Cuvier G (1804) Sur le Megatherium, autre animal de la famille des paresseux, mais de la taille du rhinocéros, dont un squelette fossile presque complet est conservé au cabinet royal d'Histoire naturelle à Madrid. Annales du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle 5, 376387.
  • David R, Droulez J, Allain R, et al. (2010) Motion from the past: a new method to infer vestibular capacities of extinct species. CR Palevol 9, 397410.
  • De Iuliis G, Pujos F, Tito G (2009) Systematic and taxonomic revision of the Pleistocene ground sloth Megatherium (Pseudomegatherium) tarijense (Xenarthra: Megatheriidae). J Vertebr Paleontol 29, 12441251.
  • Delsuc F, Douzery EJP (2009) Armadillos, anteaters and sloths (Xenarthra). In: The Time Tree of Life. (eds. Hedges SB, Kumar S), pp. 475478, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Delsuc F, Superina M, Tilak M-K, et al. (2012) Molecular phylogenetics unveils the ancient evolutionary origins of the enigmatic fairy armadillos. Mol Phyl Evol 62, 673680.
  • Edmund GA, Hoffstetter R (1970) Essonodontherium gervaisi es un sinonimo de Megatherium americanum Cuvier (Xenarthra, Mammalia). Ameghiniana 7, 317328.
  • Ekdale EG (2010) Ontogenetic variation in the bony labyrinth of Monodelphis domestica (Mammalia: Marsupialia) following ossification of the inner ear cavities. Anato Rec 293, 18961912.
  • Ekdale EG, Rowe T (2011) Morphology and variation within the bony labyrinth of zhelestids (Mammalia, Eutheria) and other therian mammals. J Vertebr Paleontol 31, 658675.
  • Fariña RA, Blanco RE (1996) Megatherium, the stabber. Proc R Soc B 263, 17251729.
  • Fariña RA, Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS (1998) Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene – early Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna. Mastozool Neotrop 5, 87108.
  • Felsenstein J (1985) Phylogenies and the comparative method. Am Nat 125, 115.
  • Gaudin TJ (2004) Phylogenetic relationships among sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada): the craniodental evidence. Zool J Linn Soc 140, 255305.
  • Germain D, Laurin M (2005) Microanatomy of the radius and lifestyle in amniotes (Vertebrata, Tetrapoda). Zool Scr 34, 335350.
  • Gray AA (1907) The labyrinth of animals, vol. 1. London: Churchill.
  • Gunz P, Ramsier M, Kuhrig M, et al. (2012) The mammalian bony labyrinth reconsidered, introducing a comprehensive geometric morphometric approach. J Anat 220, 529543.
  • Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4, 9.
  • Hone DWE, Benton MJ (2005) The evolution of large size: how does Cope's Rule work? Trends Ecol Evol 20, 46.
  • Lebrun R, Ponce de León MS, Tafforeau P, et al. (2010) Deep evolutionary roots of strepsirrhine primate labyrinthine morphology. J Anat 216, 368380.
  • Maddison WP, Maddison DR (2009) Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.71, http://mesquiteproject.org.
  • Malinzak MD, Kay RF, Hullar TE (2012) Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109, 1791417919.
  • McDonald HG (2007) Biomechanical inferences of locomotion in ground sloths: integrating morphological and track data. New Mexico Muse Nat Hist Sci Bull 42, 201208.
  • McDonald HG (2012) Evolution of the pedolateral foot in ground sloths: patterns of change in the astragalus. J Mamm Evol 19, 209215.
  • Merrit DA Jr (1985) The fairy armadillo, Chlamyphorus truncatus Harlan. In: The evolution and Ecology of Armadillos, Sloths and Vermilinguas. (ed. Montgomery GG), pp. 393395, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Midford PE, Garland T Jr, Maddison WP (2008) PDAP-PDTREE Package for Mesquite. Version 1.14. Available at http://mesquiteproject.org/pdap_mesquite/.
  • Nyakatura JA (2012) The convergent evolution of suspensory posture and locomotion in tree sloths. J Mamm Evol 19, 225234.
  • Poinar H, Kuch M, McDonald G, et al. (2003) Nuclear gene sequences from a Late Pleistocene sloth coprolite. Curr Biol 13, 11501152.
  • Pujos F, Gaudin TJ, De Iuliis G, et al. (2012) Recent advances on variability, morphofunctional adaptations, dental terminology, and evolution of sloths. J Mamm Evol 19, 159169.
  • R Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.
  • Ryan TM, Silcox MT, Walker A, et al. (2012) Evolution of locomotion in Anthropoidea: the semicircular canal evidence. Proc R Soc B 279, 34673475.
  • Saint-André P-A, De Iuliis G (2001) The smallest and most ancient representative of the genus Megatherium Cuvier, 1796 (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae), from the Pliocene of the Bolivian Altiplano. Geodiversitas 23, 625645.
  • Schmelzle T, Sánchez-Villagra MR, Maier W (2007) Vestibular labyrinth diversity in diprotodontian marsupial mammals. Mamm Stud 32, 8397.
  • Silcox MT, Bloch JI, Boyer DM, et al. (2009) Semicircular canal system in early primates. J Hum Evol 56, 315327.
  • Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1995) Morphometry of the primate bony labyrinth: a new method based on high-resolution computed tomography. J Anat 186, 271286.
  • Spoor F, Zonneveld F (1998) Comparative review of the human bony labyrinth. Yearb Phys Anthropol 41, 211251.
  • Spoor F, Bajpal S, Hussaim ST, et al. (2002) Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behavior in early cetaceans. Nature 417, 163166.
  • Spoor F, Garland T Jr, Krovitz G, et al. (2007) The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1080810812.
  • Superina M (2011) Husbandry of a pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus): case study of a cryptic and little known species in captivity. Zoo Biol 30, 225231.
  • Suutari M, Majaneva M, Fewer DP, et al. (2010) Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae). BMC Evol Biol 10, 86.
  • Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S, 4th edn. New York: Springer.
  • Vizcaíno SF, Milne N (2002) Structure and function in armadillo limbs (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae). J Zool 257, 117127.
  • Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS, Cassini GH (2006) Dental occlusal surface area in relation to body mass, food habits and other biological features in fossil xenarthrans. Ameghiniana 43, 1126.
  • Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS, Fariña RA (2008) Form, function and paleobiology in xenarthrans. In: The Biology of the Xenarthra. (eds Vizcaíno SF, Loughry WJ), pp. 8699, Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  • Wake DB, Wake MH, Specht CD (2011) Homoplasy: from detecting pattern to determining process and mechanism of evolution. Science 331, 10321035.
  • Walker A, Ryan TM, Silcox MT, et al. (2008) The semicircular canal system and locomotion: the case of extinct lemuroids and lorisoids. Evol Anthropol 17, 135145.
  • Welker KL, Orkin JD, Ryan TM (2009) Analysis of intraindividual and intraspecific variation in semicircular canal dimensions using high-resolution x-ray computed tomography. J Anat 215, 444451.
  • Wetzel RH (1985a) The identification and distribution of recent Xenarthra (= Edentata). In: The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas. (ed. Montgomery GG), pp. 521, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Wetzel RH (1985b) Taxonomy and distribution of armadillos, Dasypodidae. In: The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths and vermilinguas. (ed. Montgomery GG), pp. 2346, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Zabludoff M, Bollinger P (2009) Giant Ground Sloth. Prehistoric Beasts Series. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.