Joint shape morphogenesis precedes cavitation of the developing hip joint
Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Journal of Anatomy
Volume 224, Issue 4, pages 482–489, April 2014
How to Cite
Nowlan, N. C. and Sharpe, J. (2014), Joint shape morphogenesis precedes cavitation of the developing hip joint. Journal of Anatomy, 224: 482–489. doi: 10.1111/joa.12143
- Issue published online: 10 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 18 OCT 2013
- European Commission Seventh Framework
- 3D imaging;
- joint cavitation;
- optical projection tomography;
The biology and mechanobiology of joint cavitation have undergone extensive investigation, but we have almost no understanding of the development of joint shape. Joint morphogenesis, the development of shape, has been identified as the ‘least understood aspect of joint formation’ (2005, Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 75, 237), despite the clinical relevance of shape morphogenesis to postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip. In this study, we characterise development of early hip joint shape in the embryonic chick using direct capture 3D imaging. Contrary to formerly held assumptions that cavitation precedes morphogenesis in joint development, we have found that the major anatomical features of the adult hip are present at Hamburger Hamilton (HH)32, a full day prior to cavitation of the joint at HH34. We also reveal that the pelvis undergoes significant changes in orientation with respect to the femur, despite the lack of a joint cavity between the rudiments. Furthermore, we have identified the appearance of the ischium and pubis several developmental stages earlier than was previously reported, illustrating the value and importance of direct capture 3D imaging.