• anatomy/education;
  • anatomy/history;
  • anatomy/legislation and jurisprudence;
  • anatomy/methods;
  • anatomy/supply and distribution;
  • education;
  • embalming/education;
  • embalming/history;
  • embalming/legislation and jurisprudence;
  • embalming/methods;
  • embalming/standards;
  • embalming/supply and distribution;
  • medical/supply and distribution


This review deals with the art of (anatomical) embalming. The first part contains a brief historical review of the history of embalming, starting with ancient cultures such as the Egyptians and the lesser known Chinchorro culture, then going down the centuries and describing the anatomical techniques developed over the last two centuries. The second part deals in detail with the chemicals used for embalming purposes. The third part deals with several approaches to evaluating embalming methods, their suitability for biomechanical testing, antimicrobial properties, histological appearance, and usability. The fourth and final part analyze the European Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC) in the light of embalming.