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Keywords:

  • glucosamine;
  • liposomes;
  • moisture;
  • N-acetyl glucosamine;
  • skin

Summary

Background

N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) is a precursor for hyaluronic acid (HA) biosynthesis in the body. The main role of HA is to preserve the hydration and elasticity of the skin.

Aims

To prepare and characterize liposomes containing N-acetyl glucosamine and glucosamine (GA) and to assess their effects on the skin moisture content.

Methods

Liposomal formulations containing NAG and GA were prepared using fusion and dehydration–rehydration (DRV) methods. The amount of the moisture contents of the skin before application and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 h postapplication of the formulations were measured in human volunteers using corneometer. The occlusive factor was also estimated by in vitro method.

Results

Mean size of prepared liposomes was <2 μm, and all formulations showed negative surface charge. The highest effect on skin moisture content was achieved by NAG liposomal prepared using fusion method after 3 h. The difference between moisture content of the skin treated by preparations containing GA (solution and liposomes) and empty liposomes was negligible in all tests and duration times of the experiment.

The results of the moisturizing effect according to the in vivo method indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the skin moisture contents after application of liposomal formulation containing NAG 7 mm and empty liposomes during the 5-h postapplication period.

Conclusions

Our study demonstrated the potential of liposomes for improved NAG localization in the skin, and so it could be suggested as a new topical moisturizing formulation in skin care products.