• Chemotherapy;
  • chemotherapy nursing;
  • guided visual imagery;
  • music therapy;
  • nausea–vomiting

Aims and objectives

To reveal the effects of music therapy and visual imagery on chemotherapy-induced anxiety and nausea–vomiting.


Behavioural techniques such as music therapy and visual imagery are becoming increasingly important in dealing with chemotherapy-induced anxiety, nausea and vomiting.


The study is an experimental and cross-sectional one and performed on a single sample group with the pre–post-test design consisting of 40 individuals. The individuals in the sample group comprised both the control and the case group of the study.


To obtain the study data, the following forms were used: the Personal Information Form, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Visual Analogue Scale and Individual Evaluation Form for Nausea and Vomiting adapted from The Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Vomiting.


In the study, the participants' state and trait anxiety levels decreased significantly (p < 0·05). Music therapy and visual imagery reduced the severity and duration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting significantly (p < 0·05). In our research, 40% of the patients did not have anticipatory nausea and 55% of the patients did not have anticipatory vomiting during the third chemotherapy cycle during which music therapy and guided visual imagery were implemented.


It was determined that complementary approaches comprising music therapy and visual imagery had positive effects on chemotherapy-induced anxiety, nausea and vomiting, which are suffered too often and affect the patients' whole lives adversely.

Relevance to clinical practice

This study is worthy of interest as it has revealed that music therapy and visual imagery which have been proven to be effective in many health problems in different areas are also important, and practical complementary approaches that are effective in getting chemotherapy-induced anxiety, nausea and vomiting under control.